The modern methodology of teaching foreign languages is based on the following principles of teaching oral speech:
– the principle of communicative orientation;
– The principle of modeling a typical communicative situation;
– the principle of communicative activities;
– the principle of intensive practice;
– the principle: the phasing of speech skills;
– the principle of adequacy.
The principle of communicative orientation is important for teaching foreign languagesand especially oral speech. The principle under consideration permeates all the main stages in the organization of speech learning and its adherence leads to the requirement that the selected minimum of the language inventory provide a level of communicative sufficiency, i.e. Possibilities of participation in real communication. When you include speech material in the program, you should evaluate each phrase from the point of view of the reality of its appearance in natural acts of oral communication, in terms of the repeatability of these sentences as «ready» linguistic signs. In the subject of educational material, it is essential to envisage the possibility of forming a socially communicative position of the student, in the future an adult member of society. When following the principle of communicative orientation, the entire system of the teacher's work is subordinated to the creation in the student of a motivated need for foreign language-speech activity. Speech operations when working on linguistic material should (where possible) be communicative in nature. The basis for the teaching of oral speech should be communication, the need for communication, the possibility of communication, the practice of communication.
The principle of modeling a typical communicative situation. «Molecule» of oral communication is a communicative situation. Situation and speech are closely related. Language develops through situations and is inseparable from them. Language is needed in certain situations, so the starting point of learning should be situations. In the methodology, analogous to real situations are typical communicative situations.
Principle of communicative activity. Modern methods of teaching a foreign language proceed from the fact that foreign speech should be taught not as an abstract code, but as a specific physiological activity that ensures the production and perception of utterances in a foreign language, as an operational readiness for inclusion in a particular situation of real communication.
What are the prerequisites for the development of speech activity? Speech ability of a person in a native language develops through active communicative activity, in the course of which linguistic elements (words, expressions, expression models) accumulate in individual experience gradually.
The child begins to speak without knowing the entire language system. The possibility of using only «part of the language» for communicative purposes indicates very specific properties of speech as a code. But it is this peculiarity of the language that explains why, when learning a foreign language speech of a student, one can be involved in real communicative activity already at the earliest stages of training. When mastering a foreign language speech, the modern methodology of teaching notes that another aspect of the teaching of speech as an activity is also essential. The teacher should seek not only the ability to generate oral statements, but also generate a certain role behavior in the process of communication. Students must master the role of both the speaker and the role of the hearer.
The communicative task of the speaker is to get the attention of the listener, to receive his message, to receive a reaction to it, to take into account in the production of statements the situation of communication, the personality of the listener.
Consequently, the teaching of a foreign language implies also the mastery of certain communicative techniques.
The principle of intensive practice. The psychophysiological basis of speech activity is a skill or an automated skill that has become the result of repeated repetitions in the most economical and free way of performing this action. Of course, not all linguistic elements, even in their native language, are found in its speakers at the level of skills. Other
Are only skills or simply knowledge, often acquired only in the process of this act of communication.
The principle of phased learning of speech skills. This principle determines that
Mastering of linguistic material and operations with it in speech is carried out in stages. This means a decision at each given stage
Learning only one task, the development of only one side of the speech skill.
At the same time, the general direction should go from mastering a foreign language
Form to the ability to express with it some content.
Principle of adequacy. Adequate is understood as such an exercise, which contains in itself either the entire action being formed, or its elements. So, using question-answer exercises in teaching dialogical speech, we seem to model the corresponding form of real communication. Such forms of work can be considered adequate. When selecting or developing training activities for the use of the formation of oral-speech skills-for the development of communicative speech-it should be borne in mind that both by its content and the procedure for performing the exercise correspond to the maximum extent possible to real communicative actions. These principles are a methodical interpretation of the provisions of didactics, linguistics, psychology and communication and constitute the essence of a functional-communicative approach.
- Alkhazishvili A. A. Basics of mastering oral foreign speech. — M., Education, 1988.
- Weisburd M.JI. Typology of educational and speech situations / / Psychological and educational problems of intensive teaching in foreign languages. — Moscow: Moscow State University, 1999.