The SWOT analysis method as a means of developing critical thinking among ESP students | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №24 (158) июнь 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 21.06.2017

Статья просмотрена: 387 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Сайдалиева Г. С. The SWOT analysis method as a means of developing critical thinking among ESP students // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №24. — С. 382-385. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/158/44567/ (дата обращения: 18.06.2019).



The article deals with the implementation of the method of SWOT analysis in teaching English to non-philological educational establishments as one of the most effective methods of developing critical thinking among students. This paper includes analysis of the lesson conducted on the basis of SWOT method in Tashkent University of Information Technologies.

The resolution «The measures of further perfection of teaching system of foreign languages» of the president Karimov I. A. on 10-th of December 2012 became one more evidence of the necessity of learning foreign languages [11]. That′s why foreign language teaching is considered to be one of the most important part of teaching process in our republic.

The communicative approach is becoming popular, and many of teachers are experimenting with new methods and activities. Different activities, graphic organizers and innovative methods of teaching such as «Warm up», «Brainstorming», «Vienna diagram», «Jig saw», «SWOT analysis», «Case study», «Plus, minus, interesting», «Fishbone» and etc have been widely using in the lessons. Apart from being an excellent tool to improve the language acquisition, the use of modern methods of teaching foreign languages in the classroom provides a more meaningful context for the students. All these factors lead students to become more participative and communicative members of the class group.

Having conducted needs analysis, ESP teachers are to decide what kind of classroom activities are most suitable for the language learners with respect to their age, their present or future career development, their needs and their expectations regarding the learning process. The issue here is whether these activities should be based on a concrete teaching method. If so, which one should the language teacher select as most appropriate? Are innovative methods to be preferred to ones that are more traditional? It seems that teaching ESP can sometimes follow more downtrodden paths: a language teacher may choose to employ the Grammar Translation method if he or she knows that the language learners will need English not as a means of interpersonal communication but in order to update their professional knowledge by reading specialized literature. However, it might be better to adopt what Tarone and Yule [1989] describe as an eclectic approach. It consists in picking procedures, exercises, and techniques from different methods. This is what is actually done with mixed-ability groups of language learners because language teachers try to make their lessons useful to everybody in class there is a great variety of methods of teaching foreign languages. Nowadays some have had their heyday and have fallen into relative obscurity; others are widely used now, or have small following, but contribute insights that may be absorbed into the generally accepted mix, still others are just appearing to be adapted and approved by teachers in various teaching contexts. Teaching process is mainly based on two activities. They are imparting knowledge and acquiring knowledge. In the first case teacher sends information and the learners receive it. The innovative methods also deal with this process and their aim is to evaluate the activities of a teacher and learners using new ways and methods of teaching including new technical means of teaching. As we know that methodological approach in teaching, foreign languages may be divided into three groups. They are Passive methods, Active methods and also interactive methods. If we speak here in the first place about the passive methods, it should be noted that in Passive methods a teacher is in the centre of teaching. He plays active role but the learners are passive. Control can be carried out by the way of questions, individual and control work, tests etc. It may be useful when it is used by an experienced teacher. Secondly, in Active methods learners are also active. Their role and activity is equal in the process of interaction. Learners may ask questions; express their ideas with a teacher. The last but it is in the first nowadays-interactive method or approach is a modernized form of active methods. The most of teachers usually understand or mean cooperative action during the lesson. But here attention should be focused on inner action too. The learners should have inner motivation, which involves them into active work or active participation at the lesson. In interactive method teacher’s role is to direct learners activity to getting the aim of the lesson which include interactive exercises and tasks.

One of the most well known, though still receiving little use is the SWOT analysis method (Benoit, 2009), which appeared as a distinctive approach as far as in the beginning of the 20th century. Looking at history, one can see that a lot many similar concepts were introduced during various researches, but none of them survived for too long. In fact, some of the tools were very similar to SWOT. History is proof enough that SWOT is by far the best and the most widely used strategic planning tool. In the modern humanities, «SWOT analysis» is used as the technology of strategic planning consisting in differentiation of factors and phenomena on four categories: Strengths (Strengths), Weaknesses (Weaknesses), Opportunities (Opportunity) and Threats (Threat). The acronym of SWOT was for the first time sounded in 1963 in Harvard at a conference on business policy problems by professor of K. R. Andrews. In 1965 scientists of Harvard University of E. P. Leraned, C. R. Christensen, K. R. Andrews, W. Q. Guth offered technology of use of the SWOT model for development strategies of the enterprise. However, the SWOT analysis technology was widely adopted not only in business and policy, but also in other spheres of action, in particular, in education when training students in different disciplines. The method of strategic planning is very important in the context of changes and the development all over the world. SWOT analysis method is giving structural description of any situation, and you should give the solution for the very problem. Materials and methods of SWOT for FL study should be based on realistic professional or everyday problems and situations, and designed to motivate and actively engage students. Typically students are involved in discussions on particular problems and work out solutions or recommendations through their active group work. SWOT analysis method is also excellent topic for dialogues. It is common that Strengths (Strengths), Weaknesses (Weaknesses), Opportunities (Opportunity) and Threats (Threat) are discussed and identified by the students themselves. To be successful in SWOT studies a teacher should take into consideration the level of students’ language knowledge. The best choice would be using it with the student groups of intermediate or advanced level, who may have certain problems in grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary use, but for the most part are at ease with speaking the FL.

It is necessary to build the educational process so that each student receives not only knowledge, but also the pleasure from the learning process. Of course, teachers have successfully been using long-proven teaching methods of foreign languages, but in a rapidly changing world, we must use the latest developments, endeavor to apply the traditional scheme of learning new ideas. In order to fulfill the tasks above mentioned I have conducted my lesson with senior students of Telecommunication Technologies faculty of Tashkent University of Information Technologies.

Today the professional language teacher has a good grounding in the various techniques and new approaches; they know and understand the history and evolution of teaching methodologies. The modern teacher will in fact use a variety of methodologies and approaches, choosing techniques from each method that they consider effective and applying them according to the learning context and objectives. They prepare their lessons to facilitate the understanding of the new language being taught and do not rely on one specific «best method». The advantages of the teaching methods and techniques mentioned above are numerous and their employment contributes to the development of the following students’ skills and abilities:

  1. Language learning and intercultural skills.
  2. Communication skills: written, oral and non-verbal.
  3. Critical thinking skills.
  4. Reflective learning abilities.
  5. Organizational skills and professional knowledge.
  6. Collaborative learning and team-working skills.
  7. Life-long learning habits.
  8. Managerial and workplace communication skills such as holding a meeting, describing a project, solving a problem, negotiating a contract, giving a presentation, etc. All of these methods and techniques force students into real-life situations and require them to get involved into managerial and workplace communication. It should be noted that one of the main ideas of introducing these methods and techniques into FL courses is to provide opportunities for realistic learning situations, in particular to enable students to learn and use a FL in tasks related to and facilitating their study of other university courses. The SWOT analysis method, case study method, language portfolio, essays and research, oral presentations and teaching in teams are the areas of the most pronounced collaboration between a FL and other university courses as the tasks should be set in such a way to include the content covered as assignments or projects in professional courses. This not only enables the connecting of the professional knowledge and language knowledge in a meaningful way, but also promotes peer and collaborative learning in a realistic environment, which is one of the key methodological recommendations in contemporary. In a conclusion, I would like to emphasize that implementing SWOT analysis method in English teaching/ learning environment was successfully conducted. However, there were some challenges in using this method. I worked on the method with senior students of telecommunication technologies faculty. The level, age and knowledge of the students were taken in to account. Class was divided in to two groups of six participants and two real case studies about the impact of the internet for the development of young generation were given to the class. Although this analysis method used in the class for the first time it was successfully conducted. Students were very active in discussion and in expressing the new ideas, thoughts and viewpoints. Here I would like to mention some advantages and disadvantages of using SWOT analysis method according my conducted lesson.

Table 1

SWOT analysis method in group 426–13 TUIT

Advantages

Disadvantages

Group work/discussion

Lack of information about SWOT analysis method

All students are involved

The clarification of differences between Weaknesses and Threats

Developing presentation skills

Hesitation

Active participation/English atmosphere

Developing critical thinking/ Students were glad to give feedbacks

From my personal observation of using SWOT analysis method in ESP lessons the followings are concluded. The implementation of this very method leads students to analyze, think critically and evaluate the situation effectively. By the help of this method all four Integrated skills (listening, reading, writing, speaking) and presentation skills are developed. This method provides the formation of perfect, highly qualified specialists in the future. It is necessary to build the educational process so that each student receives not only knowledge, but also the pleasure from the learning process. By using the SWOT analysis method, I could achieve the aim successfully.

References:

  1. Karimov I. A. Harmoniously Developed Generation is the basis of Progress of Uzbekistan. T. «Shark» 1998. p. 9.
  2. Берман И. М. Методика обучения английскому языку И. М. Берман — М.: Высшая школа, 1970. — 230 c.
  3. Бим И. Л. Теория и практика обучения иностранному языку в средней школе / И. Л. Бим — М.: Просвещение, 1988. — 256 с.
  4. Гальскова Н. Д. Современная методика обучения иностранным языкам: учеб. пособие / Н. Д. Гальскова. — М.: АРКТИ, 2000. — 372 с.
  5. Dealtry R. (1992) Dynamic SWOT Analysis, DSA Associates, Birmingham, Haberberg, A. (2000), «Swatting SWOT», Strategy, (Strategic Planning Society), September.
  6. Hill T. & R. Westbrook (1997), «SWOT Analysis: It’s Time for a Product Recall» Long Range Planning, 30, № 1, 46–52.
  7. King R. K. (2004), ENHANCING SWOT ANALYSIS USING TRIZ AND THE BIPOLAR CONFLICT GRAPH: A Case Study on the Microsoft Corporation, Proceedings of TRIZCON2004, 6th Annual Altshuller Institute.
  8. Koch A. J. (2000), SWOT Deos Not Need to be Recalled: It Needs to be Enhanced, http://www.westga.edu/~bquest/2001/swot2.htm — accessed 15th September 2008.
  9. S. F. Lee, K. K. Lo, Ruth F. Leung, Andrew Sai On Ko (2000), Strategy formulation framework for vocational education: integrating SWOT analysis, balanced scorecard, QFD methodology and MBNQA education criteria, Managerial Auditing Journal Vol 15 (8), pp. 407–423.
  10. Ostafiychuk O. D. SWOT Analysis in Teaching ESP Science and Education a New Dimension. Pedagogy and Psychology, II(10), Issue: 20, 2014 www.seanewdim.com
  11. Постановление Кабинета Министров РУз. «О мерах по дальнейшему совершенствованию системы изучения иностранных языков» Ташкент, 2012. – 1-2 с.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): SWOT, ESP, MBNQA, GRAPH, ENHANCING, DSA, CONFLICT, BIPOLAR, AND, ANALYSIS.


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