The act of communication arises against the background and under the influence of the totality of circumstances affecting a person. The linguistic and semantic characteristics of the speech act are determined by the conditions of both the intralinguistic and extra linguistic nature, which are present at a certain moment of the speech act. This can be the circumstances of both the external and internal plans that are significant for a person at the moment: a phone call or the desire to receive an item that is beyond the reach of the easily achievable, a feeling of hunger or discontent with a person, someone's thought, desire, invitation, etc. Proceeding from this, the communicative situation, which is «one of the circumstantial conditions for the emergence or successful implementation of a speech act», is considered as the minimum communication cell of the «molecule» of oral communication. A communicative act is defined as «the sum of the utterances of all communicants (retrospectively — the summary text) of one communicative situation.
Communicativeness as a direction originated long ago and continued to grow in the depths of other learning systems, and its appearance is due to nothing more than an objective necessity. This need, first of all, is that after the promotion of the ability to communicate in a foreign language as a goal of learning, the discrepancy between the traditionally used methods of teaching and the new goal has become increasingly clearer and sharper.
One of the representatives of the communicative method of teaching E. I. Passov believed that communicativity consists in the fact that our education should be organized in such a way that, in terms of its basic qualities, it should be similar to the process of communication.
Communicativeness serves, so that the learning of communication takes place in conditions of communication, i.e. in adequate conditions.
Consider these conditions:
The first is to take into account the individuality of each student. After all, any person differs from another with his natural properties (abilities), and the ability to carry out educational and speech activity, and his characteristics as a person: personal experience, the context of activity (each student has his own set of activities, which he is engaged in and which are the basis of his Relations between people), a set of certain feelings and emotions (one has a sense of pride for his city, the other does not), his interests, his status (position) in the team (class).
Communicative learning involves the recording of all these characteristics of students, because only in this way can the conditions of communication be created: communicative motivation is generated, the purposefulness of speaking is guaranteed, relationships are formed, and so on.
Second — communicativeness manifests itself in the speech orientation of the learning process. It lies in the fact that the way to practical possession of speaking as a means of communication lies through the very practical use of language. The more the exercise is more like real communication, the more useful it is. Therefore, language exercises such as «Put nouns in the right case», «Make sentences from words», etc. Should be excluded from the arsenal of training facilities. All exercises should be those in which the student has a certain speech task, he has a certain speech task, and he has a purposeful speech influence on the interlocutor. This is either conditionally speech or speech exercises. The problem, therefore, is not to organize educational dialogues, but to establish a speech partnership.
Third, communicativity is manifested in the functionality of learning. Functionality, first of all, determines the methodology of work on the assimilation of the lexical and grammatical aspects of speaking.
Functionality assumes that both words and grammatical forms are acquired immediately in the activity, on the basis of its fulfillment: the student fulfills any speech task — confirms the thought, doubts what he has heard, asks about something, induces the interlocutor to action, and in the process It assimilates the necessary words or grammatical forms. A fundamentally important manifestation of functionality is the selection and organization of material on the basis of situations and communication problems that students of every given age are interested in.
Fourth — communicativity implies situational communication. Situation is the correlation of any phrase with the relationships of the communicating, with the context of their activities.
Fifth — communicativity means the constant novelty of the learning process.
On the basis of the above, it can be concluded that communicativity is necessary in the process of education, since communicativity serves to ensure that communication takes place in adequate conditions, such as taking into account the individuality of each student, manifestation in the speech orientation of the learning process, manifestation in the functionality of instruction, situationality. Communication, the constant novelty of the learning process.
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- Egorikhina S. Yu. Formation of the communicative sphere of young scientists [Text] / S. Yu. Egorikhina, V. I. Popova // Problems of Territory Development. — 2012. — № 3 (59). — P. 99–107.