This article examines the sociocultural component of teaching foreign languages, which ensures the use of a foreign language as a means of communication, education and self-education, a tool for cooperation and interaction in the modern world.
As you know, the absence of direct contact with a native speaker of a foreign language in the context of studying the country of the language in question strengthens the general educational significance of the foreign language and, consequently, a more consistent support for the sociocultural component of teaching foreign languages.
A number of studies on this issue served as an incentive for the definition and implementation of the sociocultural component in the content of teaching a foreign language.
I. L. Bim says that it is necessary to include in the content of learning elements of the language culture of peoples who speak the language of study and regional information in relation to situations of communication. In the framework of this approach, we are talking about the need to saturate the subject content of the speech of regional studies materials with a focus on dialogue of cultures (1).
Sufficiently full sociocultural component is realized in the approach of Z. N. Nikitenko, where all the features of this component are presented:
– Language knowledge of national culture (national realities and etiquette);
– Skills and skills of speech and non-verbal behavior (2).
Without equivalent and background vocabulary requires special attention of the teacher. Without equivalent words in a strict sense, they are untranslatable, and their meaning is revealed through interpretation. Examples include holidays, transport, symbols: (Halloween — Halloween, Beefeater — guards of the Tower of London).
Background vocabulary contains words whose meanings cannot be described without a certain binding to lexical units. These words are certainly present in the minds of native speakers of culture and language, associated with something particularly remarkable, and are often described through some other concepts. For example, Bristol (Bristol) is a city and port, a large bridge across the bay.
The background vocabulary corresponds to reality — the names of inherent, only to certain nations and peoples of the objects of material culture, the facts of history, state institutions, the names of national and folklore heroes, mythological creatures, and the like.
Mastering a foreign language is inextricably linked with the mastery of the national culture, which involves not only the assimilation of cultural knowledge (facts of culture), but also the formation of the ability and readiness to understand the mentality of the speakers of the studied language, as well as the peculiarities of communicative behavior of the people of this country.
So, the assimilation of the content of the national and cultural component in teaching a foreign language is the main condition for involving the students in the culture of the country whose language they are studying, namely, familiarizing them with the people, traditions and customs of this country.
One of the main goals of teaching languages is the communicative and socio-cultural development of the individual. Sociocultural development includes the development of a culture of perception of authentic texts (art, newspaper and magazine, advertising and reference, epistolary), the formation of students' ideas about the dialogue of cultures, familiarization of students with the culture of the countries of the studied language.
The purpose of education, as is known, determines its content, which must necessarily include a socio-cultural component. He plays an essential role in the development of the personality of the student, who desires and is able to participate in intercultural dialogue. The main task of the teacher is the selection of appropriate teaching aids, the improvement of their language knowledge, the search for and use of additional diverse authentic language and regional materials, the use of methodological materials, a novelty of methodological literature, without which a sociocultural approach in teaching a foreign language is impossible. All this helps in the work on the use of the socio-cultural component in the teaching of English and the filling of the new sociocultural content of the UMC.
The content of teaching a foreign language realizes its main goals aimed at developing a culture of communication among students in the process of forming all the components of a communicative competence that is of another language. A special place, as mentioned above, is the development of socio-cultural skills and skills, which ensures the use of a foreign language as a means of communication, education and self-education, a tool for cooperation and interaction in the modern world.
But teaching foreign culture is used not only as a means of interpersonal communication, but also as a means of enriching the individual's spiritual world on the basis of acquiring knowledge about the culture of the country of the studied language, knowledge of the language structure,
Its system, character, features. The subject «Foreign Language» by comparison
Also emphasizes the features of their national culture, acquaints them with universal human values.
In an effort to familiarize students with their culture, to anticipate possible difficulties and sources of misunderstanding, to choose the optimal ways and means for communication, sufficiently imaginative, vivid, understandable, impressive
Do not consider yourself to be the ultimate truth, but be prepared to listen and hear your interlocutor and partners; Believe in the fact that they also have something to say and learn.
Persuade, not press down on one's own authority, while not violating one's own fundamental principles, not humiliating one's own dignity, retaining, and if necessary, defending the right to one's own position both in communicating with students, and with colleagues and superiors.
As the level of knowledge is not always correlated with the level of practical skills, and the level of skills is not always uniquely synonymous with the level of competence. For illustration, we can give the following example. How to determine the level of sociocultural knowledge, skills and competencies of a person, if he:
– but the right to be known as a connoisseur of a particular culture, without preparation can answer any question related to history, art, legal norms, etc., many countries of the world;
– can compare the characteristics of countries in different regions, draw parallels and indicate the specifics of their development in a particular historical period, make an economic and social forecast for the future;
– professes chauvinistic principles, is aggressive towards those who do not correspond to his ideas about good and evil, norms of behavior and life.
Unfortunately, such discrepancies between the level of knowledge and moral and ethical norms, and attitudes are not so rare. A morally unstable or aggressive person with a large amount of knowledge can become a significant threat to modern society. A teacher who does not recognize the right to dissent from his students, not only does not have the necessary level of this competence, but is unlikely to be able to contribute to its full-fledged formation.
The effectiveness of the formation of socio-cultural competence is significantly influenced by the personality of the teacher, his individual style, experience, the ability to build relationships in the classroom and beyond.
But the most important thing is to properly form the language environment. It is the language environment — the main means and condition of learning. Therefore, the task of the teacher as accurately as possible to model the language environment in all available ways. The components of the language environment are CMD, ICT, media library, office, library and language paralids: authentic CMCs, magazines, newspapers, letters, photos, household items, audiovisual materials.
Means and methods for the development of the intercultural competence of a modern educated person include the following stages:
At the lower level of education (primary school), the main methods of forming sociocultural competence are imitation of traditions (celebrating holidays and reproducing national traditions, creating costumes, drawings, greeting cards), simulating situations of communication (for example, answer the questions of your foreign peer, make a dialogue); Demonstration of illustrations, learning songs, poems, project activities (without the inclusion of research). Inclusion of children in educational activities with the help of role-playing games, gives the opportunity to get acquainted with the mentality of the British and develops a positive motivation for learning German. It is during these games that students learn the culture of communication how to make purchases, how to greet, how to congratulate friends, relatives, acquaintances, how to ask questions for information.
At the intermediate stage of education, communication with peers is at the forefront for adolescents, so you can add such types of work as correspondence (including e-mail) to peers from other countries, participation in forums, communication with native speakers, (Conducting polls, voting and presenting their results, interviewing with a foreign interlocutor), it becomes more difficult to simulate the situation of communication, use role games, simulations, business games, Work aimed at overcoming stereotyped thinking.
Lexical games can be designed to train students in the use of separate parts of speech, for example, nouns, numerals, adjectives. Great interest of students is caused by topics related to life and everyday life: «Home», «Shop». «School». The use of visual and subject visualization gives scope for organizing a variety of games. Creative games are also popular.
At the higher level of education, professional and personal self-determination becomes a priority, but communication remains important, therefore, all activities must be interactive, research types of projects are more often used, information work becomes more complicated; Role games and simulations are accompanied by deep reflection, introspection, communication with foreign peers gives the opportunity to express one's individuality, minimizes the number of artificially created communicative situations; The role of language and skills of intercultural communication in various professional spheres is determined, if possible, on-line conferences with schoolchildren from other countries are held.
- Bim, I. L. Learning a foreign language. Search for new ways // IYAS, 1989. — № 1, -С, 13–19.
- Nikitenko, Z. N. On the content of the national and cultural component in teaching English to junior schoolchildren / Z. N. Nikitenko, O. M. Osiyanova / 7 IYASH, 1994.-№ 5. -C.4–7.