Рубрика: Филология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №19 (153) май 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 11.05.2017

Статья просмотрена: 6 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Каландаров А. Р. Stylistic factors in the expression comparativeness // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №19. — С. 403-404. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/153/42610/ (дата обращения: 23.03.2018).

As we know from linguistics, stylistics is separate branch of linguistics, which studies the language elements of sensitivity and emotionality. If we connect the comparativeness with the stylistic devices, we shall come across such kind of fact that the comparativeness is closely related to such stylistic devices as simile and metaphore from semantic and functional view points. These two stylistic devices are compared with the comparativeness in the micro area of similarity, because they are based on likening objects, persons, actions and situations to each other. Below we shall observe the common and different features between comparativeness and stylistic devices — simile and metaphore in the process of relating them.

Our scientist of stylistics L. T. Bobokhonova brought the following ideas about simile among the ideas of famous scientists of stylistics as I. V. Arnold and I. R. Galperin [1, 82; 4, 138] about the differences between the comparativeness and stylistic devices (simile and metaphore). «Simile creates comparativeness between two different objects expressing the main feature of a person or an object. The formal elements like «as, like, such as, as if, seem» participate in expressing simile and comparativeness. We cannot put the simple comparativeness on the same line with a stylistic device like simile. In comparativeness two objects are compared which belong to one class. Its aim is to reveal similar features of these two objects. For example two persons are compared in the following sentence».

If he is like his mother he must be a good — looking boy. [3, 66]

The rule of simile is to compare two or more objects belonging to different classes. Simile expresses one or more common features of the compared objects. For example:

The voice was familiar, cold and clear, as mountain ice.

A situation, action can be compared in simile either.

He’d gone down like a tree under the ax.

Our backs were cold like the potatoes.

She was as pleased as punch.

One more generality between comparativeness and simile is that they express the comparison between two — compared object and sample object (etalon).

In the example «He’d gone down like a tree under the ax», «he» is a compared object, «a tree» is a sample object, and «like» is an element expressing comparativeness and simile.

If we have a glance to the essence of the word «simile» it came from the word «simile — smilar». So, we can render simile into Uzbek with one word like likening. Simile is considered as a stylistic device which is used to compare the nature of a person and an object with the nature of another person or thing. We can think that simile is fully related to comparing. The reason is that it is very easy to notice the expression of comparativeness in the statement in which simile is expressed.

It’s worth paying attention that when simile was spoken about it was always related with metaphor and the differences and similarities between these two stylistic devices were shown in all sources. Linguists often come across difficulties in differentiating simile and metaphor. Because, they both are different forms of comparativeness.

The main difference between them is that in metaphor we use another one word or concept to express one concept in speech.

She is an early beard.

This can be an example for metaphor. In order to change it into simile we can put this sentence on the following transformation:

She feels like an early beard.

It’s necessary to pay attention that in the first example two objects are directly compared with each other, and in the second the connector «like» is used to compare.

The conjunction «as … as» is also considered as the main conjunction in expressing simile. We can give the following example to it:

− as lonely as a cloud, — as white as snow,

− as black as ink, — as sick as a dog.

Simile is a form of speech which compares two dissimilar objects often with the help of the conjunctions «like» and «as». Although simile and metaphor are connected with the comparativeness, the formation of simile and comparativeness is the same but the formation of metaphor differs from theirs. Because, the conjunctions «like» and «as» are not used in the expression of metaphor. For example:

Simile — I’m as blue as the devil.

Metaphor — I’m her blood

Let’s try to illustrate the difference between simile and metaphor shortly. If simile is considered as a stylistic device, which likens one thing to another with the help of the conjunctions «like», and «as», metaphor is a stylistic device, which likens one thing to another using another word or phrase i. e. if simile says one thing like the other, metaphor calls one thing with the name of another thing.

As we are talking about simile, we prefer to come to such conclusion like the following. If simile compares two objects, which belong to different classes in order to increase the emotionality of speech, comparativeness compares objects belonging to one class. By this idea we cannot say that there is no comparativeness expressed in the sentence in which simile is expressed. But simile cannot be expressed in the sentence in which pure comparativeness is expressed. For example:

He stood as silent as the rest — pure comparativeness;

He stood as silent as a stone — simile and comparativeness.

And below we’ll talk about the stylistic device — metaphor. Looking through the information taken from scientific literatures and the internet, we can see that metaphor is different from comparativeness and simile and owns its own particular area which. The reason of this is that although the three phenomena — comparativeness, simile and metaphor are based on the comparing and likening two objects, the structure of metaphor is fully different.

Metaphor is shorter than simple comparativeness. Comparativeness enlarges the speech but metaphor shortens it. The structural difference between them is suitable to the difference between their meanings. Comparativeness considers permanent and temporary likenesses. For example:

The floor was polished like a mirror.

And metaphor identifies only permanent and deep likeness.

Life is a battle, dear.

The below situation cannot be an example to metaphor. Because the permanency doesn’t exist in the likeness expressed in it.

Yesterday life was a battle. [2]

Metaphor puts closer the objects which belong to different classes. Metaphor takes the object away from the class to which it belongs and includes it to another class, which is not categorically unsuitable. It can also make objects opposite to each other comparing them. For example:

You are a brick (not a man).

It is possible to show the substantional conception and difference between various shapes of it with the help of the example «Jennie is our treasure» from the view point of comparison. At first, one can catch the meaning like «Jennie is dear», from this example. At the second time close ideas like «Jennie is like treasure», (in being dear) will be proved. In the first and second views, metaphor is not used but its equivalents are used in them.

On the basis of above theories about metaphor we come to such conclusion. The possibility of comparativeness’s expression is limited in the example in which metaphor is expressed. And we have observed that metaphor is expressed at the result of comparativeness.

But it is necessary to highlight that metaphor squeezes out comparativeness from a sentence in which it is expressed. We can show the former sentence as an example.

Jennie is dear like treasure, Jennie is like treasure, Jennie is our treasure.


  1. Арнольд И. В. Стилистика английского языка. — Москва: Флинта, 2005. — 283 с.
  2. Блэк М. Метафора // Авторский материал, Филология, — Москва, 2008. — 18 с.
  3. Бобохонова Л. Т. Инглиз тили стилистикаси. — Тошкент: Ўқитувчи, 1995. — 144 б.
  4. Гальперин И. Р. Стилистика английского языка. Учебник. Изд. 2-е, испр. и доп. — Москва: Высшая школа, 1977. — 332 с.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): simile, metaphor, comparativeness, stylistic devices, stylistic device, example, objects, different classes, metaphor differs, «Simile creates comparativeness, stylistics L. T., simple comparativeness, I. R. Galperin, functional view points, I. V. Arnold, early beard, sample object, pure comparativeness, time close ideas, example «Jennie.


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