This paper is about application of new pedagogical technologies in ESP groups. The influence of new pedagogical technologies on increasing of the quality of teaching process is described. Some examples of methods such as «Venn diagram», «Insert», «Krugi po vode» and other pedagogical technologies are shown as a factor of increasing the quality of teaching in ESP groups.
Key words: new pedagogical technologies, ESP, PRES-formula, Fishbone, Venn diagram, Insert, Krugi po vode, Swot, Jigsaw, TRIZ, learners, «Law on Education», «National Program of Personal Training» of Uzbekistan, critical and creative thinking, ability
Данная статья посвящена описанию применения новых педагогических технологий в профессионально-ориентированных группах. Также описано влияние новых педагогических технологий на качество процесса преподавания. Некоторые методы, например: Диаграмма Венна, Insert, Круги по воде и другие педагогические технологии, показаны как фактор повышения качества преподавания в профессионально-ориентированных группах.
Ключевые слова: новые педагогические технологии, английский для специальных целей, PRES-формула, Fishbone, диаграмма Венна, Insert, Круги по воде, Swot, Jigsaw, ТРИЗ, учащиеся, «Закон об образовании», «Национальная программа личного обучения» Узбекистана, критическое и творческое мышление, способность
Education of the harmoniously developed generation was defined as the prior issue of national importance in the «Law on Education» and «National Program of Personal Training» in Uzbekistan. Effective means of achieving the targeted goal is «…implementation of advanced forms of teaching, new pedagogic technologies, technical and information means of education in teaching process.»
A number of significant changes has taken place in our country during the period of implementation of «National Program of Personal Training» in practice. I most cases these changes are linked with the necessity of solution of serious conflicts between the traditional teaching pace and the tendency of continuous accumulation of new knowledge.
Teaching forms based on implementation of innovative technologies are started being used to solve these problems. As shown in the National Program of Personal Training, «teaching process is computerized and informatized in all levels and the information provision of teaching process is developed on the base of modern information technologies.»
Many problems in teaching process should be solved in order to implement «National Program of Personal Training» into practice. Targeted problems are contrast between importance of using educational technologies and unreadiness of using them by a number of teachers. The main factor of solving of these problems is implementation of advances in technique and technology as well as innovative technologies in teaching process.
In order to apply innovative technologies in the learning process teacher should possess not only information technology skills, but also master information transeiving (transmission and receiving) and processing skills as well as forming information culture by learners at the same time.
Now new educational paradigm is to raise the level of teaching from the giving information i. e. traditional tendency to the level of management of development in formation personality. Thus, there is a significant role of information technologies and it is leading media in raising the quality of education system to the new level and it will be an adequate response to the requirements of the state, labor market and as well as the society.
Tasks of new pedagogical technologies are:
− to provide guaranteed results in learning;
− to increase the quality of teaching and facilitate acquiring knowledge by students;
− to provide formation and application of national resources in education;
− to link educational process with real-life and manufacturing;
− to provide transparent assessment and control of knowledge and enable students to observe the dynamic in their results;
− to transfer from traditional teaching methods to the methods based on innovative technologies;
− to provide individualization, intellectuality and flexibility in acquiring knowledge;
− to provoke the formation and development of critical thinking of learners;
− to form skills of recognition of learners.
There are a great number of new pedagogical methods, which can be used in teaching foreign languages for ESP students.
One of the most widespread methods is Venn diagram. This method develop critical and creative thinking abilities of students. First, two or more concepts, terms or topics are defined, further they will be compared with each other. Then, two intercrossing circles will be drawn on the board, which will be filled with features of the defined concepts. After, common features for both concepts will be written in crossing area. At the end the diagram will be presented and discussed.
Second method, which is also used effectively in ESP, is «TRIZ». It was developed by Genrich Altshuller and it includes a practical methodology, tool, sets, knowledge based and model based technology for creating solutions for problems. It provokes students creating new things and finding innovative solution to problems.
Next method is «Circles on the water» (Ripples in the water). This method is used in working with texts. Working with texts can be organized through the search of key concepts and disclosure of essential features. Key word or concept will be written vertically, then each letter will be defined or characterized. This approach develops skills of noticing private features in general things and general features in private features.
Next widespread method is SWOT analysis. This term was first originated in Harvard in 1963 by professor Kenneth Andrews. Later in 1965 4 professors of Harvard University Learned, Christensen, Andrews, Guth offered to conduct SWOT analysis. S- Strengths, W- weaknesses, O- opportunities, T-threats. This method is used to analyses the conditions or circumstances in entities and to find out solutions for problems.
Method INSERT was founded by Vogan and Estes and belongs to the methods of developing critical thinking ability of learners self-activating system marks for effective reading and thinking. This method makes it visual the process of knowledge accumulation from old information to new one. Student can mark text or information as following:
«V» — already knew, «+»- new, «-»- had another idea, «?»- not clear. This method helps learners to read texts without losing interest to the text.
Method «thin or thick questions» is also used at lessons frequently. «Thin questions» require short reproductive answers, while «thick questions» provoke to give extended answers.
Next method is PRES-formula — Position-Reason-Explanation or Example-Summary. This method enables students to express their ideas on learned theme briefly. It can be used in writing essays, organization debates and discussions.
«Fishbone» was created by Japanese professor Koaru Ishikava. This is scheme. As known, problem starts from the head, consequently problem is written on the head of the fish. Reasons of problems are written on upper bones, facts proving the existing of these problems are written in the lower bones of the fish, and conclusion is written in the tail of the fish. This method also helps to develop students’ critical thinking abilities.
In conclusion, application of new pedagogical technologies and methods of development critical thinking ability of students enables student to work with different resources and types of information. Students learn how to work with texts: evaluate information, define, compare and contrast, argument their point of view referring not only to logic, but also to imagination of their peers.
Application of innovative technologies in ESP assists to solve problems with the development of speaking skills, effective use of time during the lesson, to raise motivation in foreign language acquisition. New forms of oral communication provoke the formation of creativity, recognition and independence of learners.
So let me finish my paper with the Chinese proverb: «Tell me I’ll forget, Show me I’ll remember, Involve me, I’ll understand!»
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