In this paper, the problems of teaching a foreign language at non-philological universities are considered; modern approaches and methods are covered. As well as the solution of some problems and shortcomings of ESP textbooks and dictionaries.
Keywords: language competence, training program, professional topics, grammatical structures, business meetings, presentation.
Recently, when the political, economic and social conditions of life dictate the priorities of using a foreign language as a means of communication, the question of changing the methodology of teaching a foreign language in higher education is becoming more urgent. In order to meet the state requirements put forward to the content and level of training of graduates of higher educational institutions, there is a need for almost free possession of oral and written foreign language speech. However, a limited number of study hours allocated for the study of a foreign language are a serious problem. The study of foreign languages in the university aims to practical mastery of the language, the specificity of which is determined by the subsequent professional activity.
In modern methods, the problem of teaching a foreign language for communication purposes is given quite a lot of attention [3; 40].
Meanwhile, insufficient attention has been given to the problem of teaching the grammar of a foreign language at a non-linguistic institution. The development of grammatical skills in foreign-language communication can lead to a high level of student training, which will ensure them in the future the opportunity to competently participate in business meetings, presentations, maintain contact during a conversation, telephone conversations, etc.
The prerequisites for the formation of methodological bases for teaching communicative grammar were developed by foreign and domestic methodologists in the framework of a communicative approach. This approach involves immersing the student in the language process, which provides a more natural environment for the perception of a foreign language than classes with the dominant role of formal grammar. Nevertheless, there is a danger that such an approach to learning a foreign language can lead to the development of a grammatically incorrect form of speech. As you know, the formation of grammatical competence is an integral part of the formation of language competence in general. However, in the domestic methodical literature, the communicative approach is used mainly for the development of oral speech skills, while the grammatical aspect of this approach is developed, not clearly enough.
Working with students of power engineering faculty at a non-linguistic university convincingly showed that:
– students experience difficulties in the situational use of grammatical phenomena;
– students do not have sufficiently developed skills in the use of grammatical forms;
– Many students have learned to use very simple grammatical structures in their speech, making it difficult to use the elements of the language that make the foreign language statement natural.
The emerging problems can be resolved by studying the theoretical backgrounds associated with the mechanism of the formation of grammatical skills in the learning process. It is necessary to study the theoretical prerequisites associated with the mechanism of the formation of grammatical skills and abilities. In practice, it is necessary to develop a complex of effective didactic methods of teaching communicative grammar.
The study of grammar in the framework of the communicative approach led to the conclusion that grammatical phenomena are studied and acquired not as separate forms and structures but as a complex of means for expressing certain thoughts, attitudes, communicative intentions when the linguistic and communicative competence is interrelated in the speech act. Since the main purpose of language learning is communication, the studied grammatical phenomena are limited to situational parameters that take into account social, semantic and discursive factors. Formation of communicative competence, which has an internal structure and assumes a hierarchical relationship between its components, includes the formation of a linguistic competence containing numerous aspects of linguistic knowledge, including grammatical competence. Study of traditional systems of training, distribution based on the ideas of the simplicity and complexity of certain structures for trainees, it seems to be unauthentic and unrealistic from the point of view of the communicative approach, because grammatical structures tend to accumulate together into certain blocks in certain types of communication [3; 68].
Levels of the development of communicative skills were developed in accordance with the requirements put forward by the Council of Europe for programs for teaching foreign languages, based on a competence approach to learning. Specificity of the formation of communicative grammatical skills is determined by methodological methods and means. The analysis of relevant methods and tools used to develop communicative grammatical competence made it possible to identify and describe such options as: — listening receptions, stories, elements of drama, information disequilibrium, games with problem-oriented tasks; — means — texts, graphic images (pictures, diagrams), songs, poetry. It should be noted that traditionally the teaching of a foreign language in a non-linguistic university was oriented toward reading, understanding and translating special texts, as well as studying the problems of the syntax of scientific style [1; 28]. Now it is necessary to think about shifting the emphasis in training to developing speech communication skills on professional topics and conducting scientific discussions, especially since work on them does not interfere with the development of skills, knowledge, since it is on them that it is based. Oral speech in the form of training should be understood as listening or reading, understanding and reproductive reproduction of the listened or read in the forms as oral, that is, dialogical or monologic, and written speech. Thus, we are talking about the implementation of the speech act of speaking in the process of oral communication between two or more persons. Speaking about the system of exercises that precede oral communication, the teacher should remember about their overall construction and dosage of difficulties: from one difficulty in one exercise to recognizing similar phenomena, the recurrence of the study material in small doses for a long time, automatism, the complication of exercises, etc. Although one of the main and indispensable conditions must remain a constant communicative orientation of their speech in the context of specific speech situations in the educational and scientific field of activity [1; 90]. Working in a non-linguistic university, a teacher of a foreign language should know well the features of scientific and economic texts on the specialty being studied and, if necessary, introduce the students to them. First of all, this is the presence of special terminology, special general scientific vocabulary, specific vocabulary, and those or other complex grammatical constructions. It should be born in mind that the teaching of oral speech in a foreign language, especially in a non-linguistic institution, is a complex and time-consuming process, since the student's speech should contain elements of a corresponding text genre, for example, a scientific style. The work of the teacher is facilitated by the fact that this speech can be close in many respects to the teaching text that is the basis for teaching and to have fewer arbitrary situational possibilities. Many «life» situations can be «lost» in the audience, when students from training exercises go to a dialogue. It can be about listening, reading, memorizing, retelling dialogues, completing them according to a given situation or linguistic material and compiling them on this or that principle freely. You can use full or partial reverse translation, etc. The main thing is the ability to isolate the main topic of the problem, the ability to correctly describe, formulate, object, deny, look for the cause, and so on. [1; 27]. When developing oral language skills in a foreign language by profession, it is necessary to remember that its monologic element is not inferior to the dialogical one. As is known, as one of the ways to implement the humanitarization of education in a non-philological university, the technology of teaching a foreign language is developed and implemented on the basis of using the potential of this discipline and the communicative and activity approach used in conjunction with the principles of linguistic culture [2; 38]. The main components of this approach were the following provisions:
– the teaching is considered as active, conscious, creative activity;
– in the learning process the activity of the cognizing subject is manifested;
– a foreign language serves as a means of communication, this is its communicativeness;
– learning a foreign language has a common communicative orientation, focus on the final result;
– mastering the means of a foreign language is aimed at the practical use of them in speech activity;
– by means of a foreign language you can influence the communication partner and receive information.
Linguistic culture is considered as a method studied a foreign culture through language, an important factor in educating students about the feelings of citizenship, internationalism, humanism, tolerance. In other words, the teaching of a foreign language should be based on the developed linguistic-pedagogical model of organizing problems in teaching foreign-speaking, based on the integration of cultural, personality-activity, project approaches.
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