Communicative competence should be considered as a certain level of linguistic, speech, socio-cultural, compensatory and educational-cognitive competence, which will allow the learner to vary the verbal behavior depending on the functional factor of foreign-language communication.
Since the task of forming communicative competence among students is a priority, it is important not only to know modern approaches, methods and technologies of language teaching, but also to rely on those methods that were and are the basis of development, the source of the system of speech material and the method of its presentation.
The teacher of a foreign language faces a difficult task: to teach students at the present stage of the development of society not only to speak, but also to think in a foreign language.
Learning on the basis of communication is the essence of all modern methods of teaching a foreign language, and a communicative method of instruction aimed at the practice of communication lies at the basis of any lesson, including mine. Communication should be taught only through communication, i.e. the lesson should have a practical focus. The communicative approach develops all the main language skills: oral and written speech, reading and listening, parallel learning of grammar and lexical stock replenishment.
Communicative technique is used in almost all foreign schools, since the main purpose of teaching a foreign language is the formation of communicative competence. But communicative competence can be formed only on the basis of a linguistic competence of a certain level. However, the aim of education is not a system of language, but a foreign speech activity as a means of intercultural interaction. Language is an element of culture, it functions within a certain culture. Therefore, when studying any foreign language, it is necessary to familiarize oneself with the peculiarities of the culture of the country of the studied language, the peculiarities of the functioning of language in culture. And here we are talking about the formation of regional geography. For without knowledge of the sociocultural background, it is impossible to form a communicative competence even within limited limits. Learning a foreign language is designed to form an individual who is able and willing to participate in intercultural communication. You can only speak by talking, listening, reading, and reading.
One of the basic principles of the communicative method is functionality, awareness on the part of students, which can give him a practical knowledge of the language. Language activity has three sides: lexical, grammatical, phonetic, which are inextricably linked with the process of speaking. Hence it follows that words can not be learned in isolation from their forms of existence. Functionality assumes that both words and grammatical forms are absorbed immediately in activity. For example, students are asked to ask about something, express their discontent or desire, confirm or disprove a thought, thereby inducing the interlocutor to act. In the process, the necessary lexical and grammatical material is assimilated. Proceeding from this, it can be concluded that when mastering lexical units and grammatical phenomena the leading is not their form, but the functions performed by these means.
The main task of studying a foreign language is to overcome the language barrier, to train the listeners to speak freely and correctly. In the lessons of a foreign language, it is necessary to create a favorable psychological climate and an atmosphere of cooperation, where the main condition for real communication should be a person-oriented approach in teaching. Every person differs from the other with his abilities, ability to carry out educational and speech activity, and his personal characteristics. I carry out an individual and differentiated approach in my lessons by taking into account the personal interests and characteristics of students, their level of foreign language skills. To perform certain tasks in the classroom, students are allowed to choose either an individual or group work style. Most often group work is selected, since these types of work assume a common purpose and objectives for all members of the group, as well as individual responsibility and equal opportunities for success. At the heart of training in the group is the idea of not competition, but cooperation. The overall success of the group depends on the contribution of everyone, and this means that everyone should be aware of responsibility for their part of the work, and everyone has the opportunity to ask for help from a group friend.
The presence of all equal opportunities means that everyone learns by virtue of their abilities. The efforts of both a weak and a strong learner are evaluated when each of them achieves its own goal, and not by comparing one with another. In the group, the distribution of responsibilities is democratic. If the student cannot write something in the group, he can arrange, pick up the material, etc., i.e. a weak student feels more confident in the group, more protected. For example, I often use the following technique: each student draws a card in the center of which is a fragment of the picture, connecting the cards, the students receive the whole image. As a result of such a search, a working group is formed. The existing drawing is the key to a series of tasks. Each group is given story pictures. It is necessary to form a dialogue, using the following new words and expressions. First you need to do the work with the dictionary, this task in the group can be assigned to a weak student, at this time the more powerful guys express their ideas on drawing up a dialogue. After the dialogue is drawn up, it is necessary to play it.
The main condition: everyone should participate in the dialogue. As soon as each group plays a dialogue, they are given the task to clarify any information on this situation. Another option: when studying the theme «Sport» students are offered photos with a specific sport, as well as cards with basic words, expressions and proverbs. At the end of the work each group presents its block of information on a specific sport, draws certain conclusions. A personal-oriented approach allows students to express themselves more clearly, which makes it possible to cause true motivation. Thus, in my pedagogical activity, I pay great attention to the formation of motivation. The formation of motives, first of all, is the creation of conditions for the emergence of inner motivations for learning, for their awareness by the students themselves.
A special role in the formation of motivation is played by novelty, primarily the novelty of speech situations, the novelty of the information obtained, the inclusion of students in search, creative activity. Novelty provides a rejection of arbitrary memorization (utterances, dialogues, texts, etc.), develops the productivity of students' speech skills, and evokes interest in learning activities. There was an opinion that it is possible to master a foreign language only by proficient memorization. If we constantly give the settings: «Remember»..., «Learn the dialogue», «Read and retell», etc., we will certainly provoke a loss of interest. The mechanical memorization of a huge material does not mean the ability to communicate in the future. There is another way — involuntary memorization. Students do not receive direct instructions for memorization — it becomes a by-product of speech activity with material.
When learning to speak, novelty presupposes a constant variability of speech situations, which is necessary in order to prepare the student for a «meeting» with any new situation, with a constant change of various components (task change, change of interlocutor, subject of discussion, interlocutor’s relationship, etc.) Situations can be real, conditional, imaginary, and fabulous.
The main thing is that they should all correspond with the age and psychological characteristics of students. Situations can be specific, and then the student's speech is their direct reflection. For my students, I create abstract and problematic situations. Students express their own judgment, attitude, agree or disprove my opinion or opinion of another student using different speech clichés. Therefore, the discussion of the problem is a real communication in the lesson.
The situation can be depicted with visual means (situational images, magnetic board) that reflect a certain place and time of action, make it static or dynamic (change components, rearrange actors, add new characters). It is very important that students can «skip the situation through themselves», by giving it a personal character, which increases the effectiveness of learning a foreign language, because emotions are connected along with the intellect. The role that students gain for a time or permanently makes a person-significant situation. The most adequate method of learning to speak is various forms of dramatization, including improvisation and role plays. For example: when studying the topic of «media», students are asked to assemble a team of experts: a journalist, photographer, editor.: Create your own newspaper and submit it, at the same time, focus on the subject of this newspaper. Then they need to play a working moment, i.e. interview, write an article, and get permission to publish it. In this role-playing game, the roles are divided according to the level of academic achievement the years of work have helped me to conclude that only an enthusiastic person can draw others in. The volume of regional and linguistic knowledge is very large, and therefore it is difficult to cover all Container material. Based on this problem, the teacher is faced with the task of correctly selecting the volume of knowledge that will be needed to represent the language system in a concentrated, model form, that is, to build a model of the content of the object of knowledge, which is a kind of source of knowledge for all students.
The content of the educational aspect is provided by modeling the content side of communication in various types of speech activity aimed at solving the communicative problem. The problem should correspond to the age and individual interests of students, as well as the activities they carry out. At the heart of all this are exercises. In the formation of communicative competence, the exercises in character should be verbal. In my lessons I use verbal and speech exercises in sufficient quantity. Speech-speech exercises are exercises specially organized for the formation of a skill, the characteristic feature of which is the same frequency of lexical units, non-disruption in time. When doing this kind of exercises, students have a speech task in the foreground. Studying the topic «Sights of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Great Britain» students are given handouts in the form of cards with a picture of a place and an installation is offered. To the first one: tell your friend: what is it, where to be, what is interesting. To the other: express your doubt in what you hear using «Is».., «Really..?", «Really..?" For speech exercises, it is characteristic that when they are done, students solve the reckless task. They are used in describing some actions or events, for expressing one's own attitude to what is happening, describing the appearance, the character of the characters in action. However, it should be remembered that in order to form communicative competence it is not enough to saturate the lesson with one conditionally-speech or speech exercises. It is necessary to enable students to solve a certain communicative problem that generates thoughts, ideas, and ways to solve this problem, while emphasizing their attention to the content of the answer. It requires a verbal act, and before doing it, you need to think what to say, how to present this or that information, how to react and whether it is worth expressing your thoughts on this issue at all. When planning a lesson, I try to create natural situations. The ability to communicate freely in a foreign language in real life situations is one of the indicators of the quality of language proficiency. Communicative methodology facilitates the rapid acquisition of students' conversational skills. This is provided by the assimilation of various types of monologic speech, typical dialogues and forms of language modeling. Here, in the foreground is a specific language model. The basic unit of the lesson and the entire learning strategy of this technique is the act of speaking. In the lessons for the development of spoken language I use various types of handouts: cards for pair work with a description of the situation for dialogues, monologues and other kinds of work; Pictures or drawings selected for topics for individual descriptions; Tables with speech patterns for training new vocabulary and grammar; Cards with texts for reading, selected according to the individual knowledge of students, etc.; Additional authentic material (maps, posters, photographs, newspapers, magazines, audio recordings, etc.).
As often as possible, I use in my work in lessons pair and group forms of work, creative tasks and projects, moving students in class space in accordance with the form and objectives of the lesson, games that involve a change of partners. I will say from experience that everything is always involved in the game, i.e. each individual student is not a passive contemplator, but an active participant in the educational process. Such a game moment as «Try to guess» is often used in my practice. Students are invited to choose one celebrity when studying the topic «Outstanding People», enter the image and tell about themselves, while not naming the name, others should guess. Thus, the communicative-activity approach corresponds to the didactic principles of scientific, systemic, theory-practice connection, Consciousness, activity, visibility and accessibility. Age, individual, personal characteristics are taken into account.
Activity character with the help of methodical techniques and tasks on the basis of game, imitation and free communication. A situation of success is created, and self-expression of the person becomes more important than the demonstration of linguistic knowledge, the participants in the communication feel safe from criticism, prosecution for mistakes, the educational norm is defined as individual violations of language rules and random errors. The student-centered approach allows creating a favorable atmosphere for working in cooperation. Using the principle of novelty and situability gives an opportunity to show activity, creative skill, helps to improve the skills of oral monological and dialogical speech, increases the level of communication and culture. As a result, the motivational sphere of the students increases and widens. The teacher, in turn, solving new methodological tasks, is constantly in creative search, thereby increasing his professional level, which also stimulates the process of joint cognitive activity. So, the use of the communicative method in lessons them it has a number of advantages and brings positive results: it causes interest in mastering a foreign language as a means of international communication, diversifies the lesson, raises the level of the intercultural sphere of students and serves as a foundation for the formation of communicative competence.
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