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Рубрика: Филология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №16 (150) апрель 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 25.04.2017

Статья просмотрена: 3 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Азимбаева Д. А. Setting reading goals and expectations // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №16. — С. 390-391. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/150/42323/ (дата обращения: 25.04.2018).



Readers who have set their own reading goals and expectations are more engaged in their reading and notice more in what they read. Having determined a purpose for reading, they are better able to evaluate a text and determine whether it meets their needs. Even when the reading is assigned, the reader’s engagement is enhanced when he or she has determined ahead of time what information might be gathered from the selection or how the selection might interest them.

Good readers set reading goals and expectations before they begin reading. This behavior involves a variety of strategies that will help students prepare to read the text.

Activate prior knowledge Good readers do not read in a vacuum. When they approach a new text, they consider what they already know about the subject or what their experiences have been in reading other material of the same type or by the same author.

Procedure

  1. At the beginning of each selection, it is usually a good idea to activate prior knowledge in order to focus their attention on what they already know about the subject. You might discuss general information on the subject or elicit background information that may help the children understand key points in the selection. If, for example, a story hinges on the mischief caused by a blue jay that likes to carry off and hide shiny objects, the children may need to know about the “thieving” nature of blue jays. Since you would not want to give away plot surprises by directly calling attention to this characteristic of blue jays, you might tell the students that in the story the children keep seeing a blue jay. Ask them to share anything they know about the appearance or the behavior of blue jays or other jays. If no one mentions the key point—thieving— mention it along with another characteristic, such as their boldness in approaching humans, so as not to draw undue attention to the main point and give the plot away.
  2. After activating prior knowledge, have the students browse the selection. For a nonfiction article, they may browse the entire selection; for a nonfiction book, they may browse the chapter heads and subheads. For fiction, however, they will usually want to browse only the first page or so to avoid ruining any surprises. It is enough to read only a few paragraphs to recognize that a selection is fiction and to get a general idea of what to expect. (For poetry, browsing is neither necessary nor appropriate. The genre will be obvious, and to experience the sounds and the rhythm of a poem, the reader should read it straight through at the first reading.)
  3. The clues/problems/wanderings procedure will help the children think about the elements they notice during browsing. On the chalkboard write the headings clues, problems, and wanderings. Under each heading, write in brief note form observations the students generate as they browse. For example, under clues the children might list the genre or keywords that relate to the explicable concepts. Under problems, they might list unfamiliar words or complex ideas. Under wondering, they could list any questions that occurred to them during browsing. After reading, the class will return to these lists to determine whether the clues were borne out during the selection, whether and how the problems were solved, and whether their wondering were answered or deserve further investigation.
  4. The final step to be taken before reading a selection is to decide how to read the selection. The teacher’s guide contains suggestions for appropriate ways to read each selection; but from the beginning of the year, the students should be involved in the decision for each selection. Among the many options for reading are independent silent reading by the students; silent reading by the students, with stops to ask questions or discuss reactions; reading aloud in small groups; choral reading; and reading aloud by the teacher. Various factors may be involved in deciding how to read the selection.

‒ Early in the year, it is a good idea for students to read most selections aloud for two reasons: Both you and the students will get a feel for problem areas in reading, and you can model strategy use for the students if they are unused to thinking aloud.

‒ It is often helpful for students to read aloud any selection containing many facts or complex ideas, stopping for frequent summaries or clarifications. Reading aloud also gives you the opportunity to model the slower, more careful reading required for comprehending informational text.

‒ The students may read very simple, straightforward selections silently, although you might consider having them read aloud if the class has recently read a number of more challenging texts and the students need the reinforcement and encouragement of seeing how well they can really read.

‒ For full appreciation of the language, the students should read stories with colorful language or lively dialogue aloud. Often students enjoy engaging in such play with language, but use caution: stories containing regional dialect, foreign expressions, or unusual turns of phrase may be highly entertaining if read well but merely confusing if the reader stumbles over the distinctive language. If it is likely that the students will have problems reading aloud, you may want to read while the students listen, at least until they catch on to the way that language is used in the selection.

‒ Poetry, of course, is meant to be read aloud. A poet, said W. H. Auden, is “a person who is passionately in love with language.” On another occasion, Auden said that the person who is likely to become a poet is one who “likes to hang around words and overhear them talking to one another.” You can help students appreciate the language of a poem by reading it aloud to them first. After hearing your smooth, effortless reading, they can participate either individually or chorally in a second reading.

Setting reading goals and expectations will be particularly helpful to students as they study and read in content areas such as science and social studies. If they keep in mind the information they expect to get about the general topic, they will be more aware of details from their reading that will lead to a better understanding of that topic. In fact, they can use a clue/problems/wondering procedure of their own to help them monitor their learning in other subject areas and evaluate whether they need to use other sources of information. Encourage the students to follow the usual procedure in the rereading, beginning with setting reading goals and expectations and applying appropriate goals and expectations and applying appropriate strategies as they read.

References:

  1. Jones, K. 1982. Simulations in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Kettering, J.C. 1975. Developing communicative competence: Interaction activities. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  3. Klippel, F. 1984. Keep talking: Communicative fluency activities for language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): students, selection, blue jays, prior knowledge, blue jay, complex ideas, Activate prior knowledge, good idea, key point—thieving— mention, Good readers, brief note form, W. H. Auden, reading goals, effortless reading, careful reading, choral reading, silent reading, Дата публикации, entire selection, expectations.

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