This article is dedicated to some important issues in using the modern educational technologies in further education. Here also considered a modern reform related to the implementation of a student-centered approach which caused some major changes in the usual practice of training and education of children.
Key word: pedagogical technologies, educational technology, fundamental characteristic, children oriented, further education, cognitive abilities, natural activities
A modern reform in education of Uzbekistan related to the implementation of a student-centered approach has caused some major changes in the usual practice of training and education of children:
‒ Updating the content of education;
‒ The introduction of new teaching technologies for personal development.
Difficult, sometimes contradictory but inevitable transformation reflected in the activities of establishments of an additional education of children. And if the content of education in them has undergone significant changes, the educational technology updated slowly, firmly entrenched the traditional system, and many are struggling with new technologies.
Pedagogical technologies of additional education of children oriented to the solution of complex psychological and pedagogical tasks: to teach the child to work independently, communicate with children and adults, to forecast and evaluate the results of their work, look for the causes of difficulties and to be able to overcome them.
The establishment of additional education of children is a special institution that should be not only a place of education of children, and various forms of space communication.
The role of the teacher in further education should be the organization of the natural activities of children and the ability to properly manage the pedagogical relationship system in this activity.
Today, the system of additional education of children is necessary to pay more attention to improving the pedagogical skills, increasing the training of teachers in the implementation of modern technologies of training and education of children.
So, we analyze modern educational technologies based on these approaches and methods.
We cannot say that we do not use very modern educational technologies, many of us are using the elements of a particular technology in our work, now I try to explain this.
«Pedagogical technology» — this is the construction of teacher's work, which included in his action a certain order and expect to achieve the projected results.
The following criteria are the essence of educational technology:
‒ an unambiguous and strict definition of the learning objectives (why and for what);
‒ the selection and maintenance of the structure (that);
‒ optimal organization of the educational process (as);
‒ methods, techniques and means of teaching (through which);
‒ as well as keeping the required real skill level of the teacher (who);
‒ and objective methods of assessment of learning outcomes (is it). (7, p. 156)
The establishment of an additional education of children, in contrast to the school there are all conditions for children to share their individual characteristics and interests; teach all different, adjusting the content and methods of training depending on the level of mental development and specific features, capabilities and requirements of each child.
The condition for the effectiveness of any development of the curriculum in secondary education is a passion of the child's activities, which he chooses. Therefore, in the system of supplementary education curriculum is created by each student. (6, p. 90)
In further education there is no strict regulation of activity, but voluntary and humanistic relationships of children and adults, comfortable for creativity and personal development make it possible to introduce the practice of student-oriented technologies.
The purpose of student-centered learning technology is the maximum development (as opposed to the formation of pre-defined) individual cognitive abilities of the child through the use of existing him of life experience.
In accordance with this technology for each student to create individual education program, which, unlike the training is individual, based on the characteristics specific to the student, the flexibility to adapt to his or her abilities and development dynamics (for example, many teachers work individually with gifted children, children with disabilities) lay in its educational program.
In the student-centered learning technology center of the whole educational system is the individuality of the child's personality, therefore, methodical basis of this technology account for differentiation and individualization of education.
Personalization of education is a fundamental characteristic of an additional education of children. By virtue of its use in different organizational forms and nature of the various motivations of personality-oriented practice became his ancestral feature.
Individualization of learning technology (adaptive) — this training technique in which an individual approach and individual form of training is a priority.
The establishment of several options taking into account the individual features can be applied additional education of children and opportunities for students:
1) Acquisition of training groups of uniform composition (by gender, age, social status).
2) Intra- group differentiation for the organization of training at different levels when it is impossible to form a complete group on the direction.
3) Profile education, elementary and pre-professional training in groups of senior managers (seamstress, video art, etc.). (4, p. 109)
The main advantage of individual training is that it adapts the content, methods, forms, tempo training to the individual needs of each student, to monitor his progress in learning to make the necessary correction. This allows the student to work economically, to control their costs, which guarantees success in learning. At school, individual training applies limitedly. Group technologies require the organization of joint activities, communication, dialogue, mutual understanding, mutual support, intercorrection. Modern additional education level is characterized by that group technology widely used in its practice. There can be selected the following level of collective activities in groups:
‒ Simultaneous work with the whole group;
‒ Work in pairs;
‒ Group work on differentiation. (3, p. 78)
Peculiarities of group technology lies in the fact that the study group is divided into subgroups for addressing and carrying out specific tasks; the task is performed in such a way as to be visible the contribution of each student. Group members may vary depending on the purpose of the activity. During group work the teacher performs a variety of functions: controls, answers to the questions, regulates disputes, helps. Teaching has done through communication in dynamic groups, where each learns each. Work in pairs allows trainees to develop a removable structure of independence and communicability. Interactive learning technologies is an organization of the learning process in which the student can be in the collective, complementary, based on the interaction of all participants of the training of comprehension process.
Using the interactive learning models include simulations of life situations, the use of role-playing games, joint problem-solving. It eliminates the dominance of any member of the educational process, or any ideas. It teaches humane, democratic approach to the model.
The method «Carousel» it is formed two rings: inner and outer. The inner ring is the students sitting still, and the inner students change in every 30 seconds. Thus, they have time to say a few minutes a few topics and try to convince the correctness of the interlocutor.
Technology «Aquarium» is that some students act out the situation in the circle, and the rest observe and analyze.
«Brownian motion» presupposes the movement of students across the class to gather information on the proposed theme.
«Decision tree» — class is divided into 3 or 4 groups with the same number of students. Each group discusses and takes notes on his «tree» (a sheet of paper), and then the group is swapped and appends their own ideas to neighbors trees. (2, p. 56)
The meaning of interactive learning is that the learning process is organized in such a way that almost all trainees are involved in the learning process, they are able to understand and reflect on about what they know and think. Joint activity of students in the learning process, development of teaching material means that each individual brings their own special contribution; there is the exchange of knowledge, ideas and methods of activity. Moreover, it happens in an atmosphere of goodwill and mutual support, which allows not only obtaining new knowledge, but also develops the cognitive activity, it transfers into higher forms of cooperation and collaboration.
All the educational, developmental, up-bringing, social technologies used in the further education of children, are intended
‒ to awaken the activity of children;
‒ to arm them with optimal methods of business;
‒ to carry this activity to the creative process;
‒ to lean to independence, activity and communication of children.
New educational technology can radically restructure the learning process. Under the conditions of an additional education the child develops, participating in the games, cognitive, labor activity, so the purpose of the introduction of innovative technologies is to give children experience the joy of labor in teaching, awaken in their hearts the feeling of self-esteem, to solve the social problem of development of each student's abilities, including it in an active activities, bringing the presentation on the topic to study the formation of sustainable concepts and skills. Modern technologies in the work of institutions of additional education of children combined with everything valuable that has been accumulated in the domestic and foreign experience, family and folk pedagogy, they allow you to choose the most effective methods and techniques for organizing children's activities and create favorable conditions for their communication, activity and self-development.
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