Reasons of influence of English borrowings on development of Kyrgyz vocabulary during the last decades | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Филология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №15 (149) апрель 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 17.04.2017

Статья просмотрена: 44 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Нарматова Г. Х. Reasons of influence of English borrowings on development of Kyrgyz vocabulary during the last decades // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №15. — С. 714-716. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/149/42138/ (дата обращения: 25.05.2018).



In this articleincludes one of the answers for the actual question about language. Also this article contains the reasons for the occurrence of English borrowings in all areas of life: In politics (inauguration? president), in economy (price list), in daily life (shopping) and in youth jargons (hipi). Considered the causes of effects to the development of Kyrgyz language during the last decades.

Key words: disk, notebook, disk, byte, web-site

В этой работе даны некоторые ответы на актуальный на сегодняшний день вопрос о развитии кыргызского языка. Рассмотрены причины и методы вхождения английских слов во все сферы кыргызской жизни. В сфере политики (инаугурация, президент), экономика (прайс-лист), торговля (бизнес), мода (подиум), в повседневной жизни (шопинг), среди молодежи (хипи). К тому же в этой статье описывается их влияние на развитие лексики на протяжении последних десятилетий. Приведены примеры из речи носителей кыргызского языка.

Ключевые слова: диск-магнитный носитель информации, Байт-единица количества информации, Сайт-местоположение, Брифинг-краткий.

In the process of historical development human languages constantly enter into certain contacts with each other. At the beginning of XXI century a most dynamics and mobility are characterize the Кyrgyz –English tongue contact. Today English borrowings get to the Kyrgyz language headily and in great numbers. It is not casual. In our days the spheres of international contacts broaden constantly, where English becomes the language of international communication [4]. Important political –economic role of the English-language countries in the world, their superiority in some spheres of activity is largely activated by appearance and use of English words in Kyrgyz language.

Which are reasons of this enormous stream of English borrowings in Kyrgyz speech? We will distinguish the most essential reasons in our view:

  1. Disintegration of the Soviet union and, as a result, activation of business, scientific, trade, cultural connections of Kyrgyzstan with other countries, bloom of foreign tourism, participating of Kyrgyz people in Olympiads, international festivals, shows of fashions etc.
  2. World market, economy development, information technologies resulted in appearance of new terminology (computer language, economy, finances, internet). For us many new objects that require the name appeared: е- mail, internet, notebook, disk, byte, web-site. And we are simpler to use existing glory of other language, than to invent new.
  3. Fashion: knowledge of English is considered in our days in a high degree prestige. Modern Kyrgyz people using English borrowings, want to the same way to look it fashionably, prestige, to conquer respect of interlocutor. They are sure that word " market» sounds more attractive than expression «market, (базар) " in our native language, and also like to use in the speech these words: презентация (presentation), рейтинг (rating), брифинг (briefing), шоп-тур (shop-tour), ток -шоу (talk show), шоумен (showman) [3].
  4. Expressivity of novelty: many firms and companies as the name apply English borrowings, to attract attention the novelty of sounding of Chickens, Beeline, Тelecom, Pathword, Skyline, Wear black.
  5. The most sufficient cause is indisputable world leadership of the USA in many spheres of modern life.
  6. Absence of more exact name, and that is why today 25 % newest English borrowings firmly entered the dictionary of business man [1].
  7. Necessity to express through English words the multiple-valued descriptive turns (тент (tent) — waterproof fabric for protecting from a sun (of күндөнсактанууүчүнбышык, сууөткөрбөйтурганкездеме), (pealing) пиллинг- крем (cleans the skin of face, (беттинтерисинтазалоо), кейс (suitcase) is a small flat suitcase, a diplomat (чаканжалпак чемодан) [3]
  8. Addition to the language more expressive facilities (often we hear image (имиж)- instead of character (of cөлөкөт, көрүнүш), price-list (прайслист- кызматтынмүнөзүнкөрсөтүүчү), show (шоу) is presentation (of жарыкмаанайдагыоюнзоок) [3].
  9. The new types of educating entered introduction of the new system of education

– баллоноваясистемаобучения (balloon system), модульныерейтинги (module rating), аккредитация (accreditation).

– new terms appeared in connection with the novelty of the system: методы (methods), мониторинг (monitoring), критерий (criterion),

The sources of appearance of English borrowings are no less important in the Kyrgyz language: — MASS-MEDIA. Lately the modern MASS-MEDIA became the main source of language material. The intensive use of English borrowings generates a new linguistic situation at that the use of one English term replaces by itself the hole phrase qualitatively. In the language of printed MASS-MEDIA, foremost in advertisement and news texts, a conciseness and enhanceable informing of text matter very much, therefore English words took the durable place in modern MASS-MEDIA.

Advertisement — one of basic sources of English borrowings in a Kyrgyz language. Home ad makers frequently do not have an experience creation of advertisement, and that is why copy the English-language advertisement, filling Kyrgyz advertisement texts with English words:стимер(steamer),тостер(toaster), триммер(trimmer), пейджер(pager), иммобилайзер(immobilizer) [2]

– Internet. Growth of number of users of the Internet resulted in distribution of computer vocabulary: homepage, e-mail,CDROM, чат, бит, байт, диск, курсор, флешка.

– Cinema. Popularity of the Hollywood films resulted in appearance of new words in our vocabulary: хоррор, блокбастер, вестерн, прайм-тайм, киборг, терминатор.

– Music. Perception the USA as a center of musical fashion entailed appearance of such words, as: хит, сингл, ремейк, трек, саунд-трэк, постер.

– Sport: боулинг, дайвинг, скейтборд, сноуборд, байкер, шейпинг, фитнес.

– Cosmetic terms: лифтинг, скраб, пилинг

Thus, we come to the conclusion, that the amount of English borrowings in a Kyrgyz language is great. Among them it is possible to distinguish 2 basic types of borrowings:

1) Words that came in a language, to name new objects or term having international character. Their use in speech in majority cases it is justified.

2) Words of foreign origin, having synonyms in a Kyrgyz language. Their penetration in a language creates lexical surplus and can interfere with understanding of sense. But it can be avoided in many cases, using Kyrgyz study of synonyms words and expressions. Ex: амбиция (менменсиген, къйрън), вердикт (чечим), концентрация (борбор,топтолгонжер)

Литература:

  1. Аракин В. Д. Сравнительная типология английского и русского языков.//М.:Просвещение,1989.
  2. Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь.// — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1990.
  3. Е. А. Окунцова, ООО Айрис 2007ж Москва /Жусупажы Султанов, 2014ж Ош ш.
  4. Дьяков А. И. Причины интенсивного заимствования англицизмов в современном русском языке. // Язык и культура. — Новосибирск, 2003. — С. 35–43.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): English borrowings, Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyz advertisement texts, English words, Kyrgyz speech, modern MASS-MEDIA, Kyrgyz study, диск-магнитный носитель информации, development human languages, Кyrgyz –English tongue, political –economic role, new objects, new linguistic situation, Home ad makers, printed MASS-MEDIA, Key words, language material, youth jargons, price list, English-language advertisement.


Ключевые слова

диск, блокнот, байт, Веб-сайт

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