Reading is a motivated, receptive, mediated kind of speech activity, proceeding in the internal plan, aimed at extracting information from a written fixed text, proceeding based on visual perception processes of arbitrary short-term memory and transcoding information.
In learning a foreign language, reading is seen as an independent type of speech activity taking the leading place in its importance and accessibility. It performs the following functions:
- Instills skills of independent work.
- The text often serves as the basis for writing, speaking and listening.
- Educational goals (morality, worldview, values).
- Expanding the horizon.
- Encourages love to the book.
In order to achieve the set goals, it is necessary to attach to reading of artistic, journalistic, scientific and special literature in a foreign language.
The subject of reading is another's thought coded in the text and subject to recognition in the visual perception of the text. A product is an inference, an understanding of the semantic content.The result is an impact on the reader and his own speech or non-verbal behavior. The unit of this type of speech activity is the semantic solution adopted on the basis of processing the extracted information and its assignment.
The basis for teaching reading is the following principles, singled out by S. K. Folomkina:
– Learning to read is the training of speech activity; Communication, and not just the way to voice the text;
– Teaching reading should be built as a cognitive process;
– Teaching reading should include, along with receptive, and reproductive activity of students;
– Teaching reading involves building on the structure of the language.
– Like all human activity, reading has a three-phase structure.
- Motivating phase of this activity, i.e. Origin of the need, desire, interest in its implementation. It is activated by a special communicative task that creates read installation. It focuses on extracting all, basic, specific information. This determines the intent and strategy of reading.
- The analytical-synthetic part of reading proceeds either only in the inner plan (understanding in reading to oneself) or in the inner and outer plan (understanding in reading aloud). It includes mental processes: from visual perception of graphic signs, known and partially unknown linguistic material And his recognition to his awareness and acceptance of a semantic solution, that is, to an understanding of meaning. Therefore, when reading, the analytical-synthetic part includes the executive part.
- Control and self-control constitute in the third phase of reading as a type of speech activity, which ensures that understanding is made into an external plan. This can be done with the help of other types of speech activity — speaking and writing. And also non-verbal, for example, by signaling or post-reaction.
All that has been said above makes it possible to clarify the characterization of reading as a complex type of speech activity. Has an internal and external plan, taking place in two forms (aloud and to himself), implemented in close interaction with other types of speech activity.
The main teaching and methodological unit of teaching reading is a text. First of all, the text is a communicative unit reflecting a certain pragmatic setting of its creator. As a unit of text, in addition to reproducibility in different conditions, integrity, social conditioning, semantic completeness, manifested in the structural and semantic organization of the speech product, the integration of parts of which is ensured by semantic-thematic connections, as well as by formal-grammatical and lexical means, is inherent.
In the methods of teaching reading, different types of reading are distinguished. Now, the classification of reading types by the degree of penetration into the text offered by S. Kh. Folomkina, which divides the teaching reading into learning, familiarization, viewing and searching, has become most widespread.
A learner is a careful reading into the test to fully understand the contents and memorize the information contained in the test for its further use. When reading with full understanding the content of an authentic text, it is necessary to understand both the main and secondary information, using all possible means of disclosing the meaning of unfamiliar linguistic phenomena.
Introductory reading involves extracting basic information, while placing a stake on the reader's recreating imagination, thanks to which the sense of the text is partially filled. When reading with an understanding of the main content, the student should be able to determine the topic and highlight the basic idea of a written message, to separate the main facts from the secondary ones, omitting the details.
The viewing reading is considered as a kind of reading, the purpose of which is to get a general idea of the information contained in the text.
Search reading involves mastering the ability to find in the text those elements of information that are relevant to the performance of a particular learning task.
By reading function, the following types are distinguished:
– Cognitive — reading only in order to extract information, comprehend and store it, briefly react to it, verbally or nonverbally.
– Value-Oriented — reading in order to later discuss, evaluate, retell the content of the read, i.e. Use the results of reading in other types of speech activity.
– Regulatory — reading with subsequent subject actions, correlating or not correlating with those described in the text.
In the last two cases, reading is already simultaneously a learning tool. The purpose of teaching reading at school is to form and develop the skills of reading as a type of speech activity, rather than learning to read, which is only a means to achieve a common goal.
The sequence of allocation of reading types is essential for achieving a basic type of training in foreign languages. Acting as a state standard, the achievement of which is compulsory for all students, regardless of the type of school and the specifics the course of study, and the measurement of which should give an objective assessment of the minimum level of possession of students by a foreign language.
The initial stage of education in secondary school plays the role of a foundation in the formation of the communicative nucleus and is also a preparatory stage, during which students acquire a set of basic reading skills and skills. Starting from the well-known sounds, students master the writing of letters, the technique of reading aloud and to themselves with a full understanding of the text containing 2–4 % of unfamiliar words. By the end of this stage, reading acquires a relatively independent meaning as a way of speaking another language.
For the average stage of learning is characterized by reading with a full understanding of the main content, involving the use of all reading skills in the complex. The ability to achieve understanding, overcoming interference by all available means, as well as the ability to seek to ignore the interference, extracting from the text only significant information, the ability to read to themselves for the first time Texts in order to fully understand the information, in order to extract basic information and partial information.
At the senior stage, perfection of skills, abilities, that acquired earlier. Reading at this stage is aimed at teaching reading with full and accurate understanding. Learning to this reading ability is debated by a practical necessity: a high school graduate should understand the original and slightly adapted texts from the socio-political and popular science literature that can meet him in his professional work, later on in the language or for self-educational purposes.
Particularly important at this stage of training is the development of the following skills:
– determine the nature of the text read (popular science, socio-political, artistic);
– extract necessary information from the text;
– to compose and record the abstracts and the annotation of the text.
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