In this article, the author claims that it is necessary to pay special attention to every word in the process of translation, details and sentences of the original work, as the interpreter style, plays an important role in the disclosure of the content and nature of the translation works. Moreover, the article discusses the question of their influence to the semantic structure of the works.
Key words: translation, detail, work, semantics, structure, image, linguistics
“Primarily, the translation agency makes a target on the real translation factor expression, namely, it has descriptive character, not prescriptive one.” This is the simultaneous image of the translation work, the event which demands mutual compliance of each formal and content component in it. This process consists of linguistic and literary studies.
The detail has particular place in the present process. Because “the component- is especial part of artistic image. In wide meaning, the component describes exactly the psychological conditions of characters, their feedbacks and experiences. The component may also turn into the image.”2 For example, the American writer O. Henry effectually expressed the inside experience of Sue, who did not know how to inform Johnsy about the death of the old man in the neighborhood- Mr. Behrman, who helped her friend to recover from the pneumonia disease and suffered from it in the story “The last leaf” by the component of the scarf: “That afternoon, Sue came to the bed where Johnsy lay, contendently knitting a very blue and very useless woolen shoulder scarf.”3 Sue ferls the scarf at the moment while she suffers from the informing her friend about the event that happened with Mr. Behrman. By this, it reveals a sense of gratitude, because the old man greatly contributed in recovering her friend. Likewise, it also expresses a sense of regret towards the dead old man.
Components like window, wisteria, its leaf, soup, picture, eye, wind, rain, easel which were used in the story served to show the inner world and real life of two painter friends living in New York. For the writer, “ the component is a tool, a resource to create reality, which specifies the thing or event which are being described, representing it as a thing which may be felt by the sensory perception.”4
The window component served as a detail which connected images with the spiritual world. In the original copy of the story which we used, the component of window was mentioned 5 times.
In the uzbek option of the story translated by M. Abdullaev, the component of window attended in 12 checkups.5 While in the option by Zukhra Askarova, it was observed only 4 times.6 Both versions were translated from English, the title of the option by M.Abdullaev was “So’nggi yaproq” (The last leaf), however Z.Askarova translated it as “So’nggi barg”. In the next version there are some changes can be seen. The exposition of the story was shortened. Subsequently, it lead to decrease of artistic-aesthetic, poetic and linguistic tasks in the original reality of the story.
The translators did not pay sufficient attention to some places in the story. Thereby, it was difficult to save the effect of the original story. As the distinctions in the translations of the story depend on the translation process and the task of the creative source, we will not halt on it circumstantially. However, we will conceive well particularly on the artistic component, its artistic-aesthetic tasks in the story and preservation of it during the translation process. In the version by M.Abdullaev the window is on the first place, He recites that it aimed at north in the general view of the massif. On the second place is the small size of the window and its Dutch style. By the Dutch style, it is envisaged the window of the slanted ceiling room(mansard). It also characterized the social and financial situations of the friends. Next is the contrast between window and eye components: “ Johnsy imperceptibly laid under the blanket and her eyes were incessantly looking towards the window.” Here, the content of the eye and window components form the structure and connect the inner world of Johnsy with external one. In the English version this structure was given in the other way: “ Johnsy’s eyes were open. She was looking out of the window and she was speaking quietly.” While the writer mentions the eye and window components he indicates the rapid and dynamic epic thrills. The eyes notify the inner world of the person, the window awakes the association of ideas about the external world in the reader’s mind relatively. By this, the interest towards Johnsy’s ensuing life increases.
Moreover, It should be noted that abovementioned sentence with its structure and eye and window components were on the 4th place in the option by M.Abdullaev: “She was looking out of the window and counting- counting in reverse order.” By this image, it can be comprehensible that Johnsy was counting the leaves of wisteria, falling one by one because of cold. It awakes the thought in her mind that the if this leaf end then ends the life. And this occasion takes important place in the story to express the essence image of Behrman and epic thrills intensity. The following usage of the window component stands with Sue’s heart concerns: “She looked out of the window” (Sue looked with concerning).
After the present event, the writer brings cocked wisteria leaf first time into the story’s scene: “The old devious wisteria with gangrenous roots clang up to half of brick wall”. If we pay attention, it can be seen that there was not any word about wisteria or its leaf in the story until this time. At glance, this image which seems simple, reacts with other components and helps to form the complete reality in full scales. Especially, the image of the indisposed and invalid girl — Johnsy is delivered simply and touching. Thereby, the author achieved the extraction of emphatic character. Apart from that, the introduction of the epithets to wisteria such as old and devious came contrary to the contest by contrasting it with young girl — Johnsy. In the overall picture, by method of antithesis it formed the contrast of young and old. This affects to Sue’s soul. She saddens of the extraordinary situation of Johnsy as faithful friend and ordinary human. Later, she tells compassionately this issue to the old painter Mr. Behrman, who lives on the first floor in the flat alone and they come in to the girl’s room together. If we focus on image, it can be felt the life thirst, despite the eld and senility in wisteria: “Cold autumn days unsparingly shed its leaves, and almost naked rods climbed up on the crumbled brick wall.” There is a similarity between image of Behrman and the first image in the present scene and the wisteria component: Old Behrman lived downstairs. He was also an artist, but he had never painted a good picture. He was sad about this and he was angry about it too, ‘One day, I will paint a wonderful picture,’ Behrman often said. ‘ One day I will paint a masterpiece.’ But he had never painted a masterpiece and he was more than sixty years old.7
Both of them are old, both are unlucky. The wisteria has to live climbing up to the brick wall instead of fertile soil. What concerns the old man, he lives waiting for his muse. But each of them has soul. Namely, both are thirst for life, both are flowers- trying to give something to everyone.
In this part of the story structure the images of wisteria and Behrman become equal. Specifically, the illusion that despite the wind and rain the wisteria tries to awake hope in Johnsy, inspires Behrman to create king work in his life. In order to save the hope in girl, at night he makes the leaf, paints and upholsters it on the rod of the tree which is seen from the window of the third floor. Despite staying outside in cold and rainy conditions, he devotes his life to bestir hope in girl’s mind. He got started this after Sue’s words, when he saw a leaf first time in Johnsy’s room. Thereby, surprised by the heroism Sue with furled blue scarf tells about Behrman’s bravery to her friend. The leaf component and sadness in Sue’s voice together formulated in a very convinced way big aesthetic task which laid on Behrman- humanitarian ideas. Faithfully, at glance the unsuccessful life of old man ended. However, he eventually found his muse and created his mature work before death. By this, the idea that everyone,it does not matter young or adult must complete his aim in life propelled forwardly.
The mastery of the writer is in fact that he could show a huge pain, which cannot be expressed by words, by putting components. Hence, B. B. Nabokov repeats in his lectures the same phrase:”Careless the details!”8 Though the component is not so big, small detail, by assembly it revealed ideas of hedonism and kindness in the story.
Thus, O. Henry strengthens the adoption ability in the reader’s mind and increases backdrop of the text by putting to use the artistic components in his works. The talent of the writer can be seen in expressing the real virtues of humanity in his characters by the usage of small components.
- V. N. Commissars. Theory of Translation (linguistic aspects): Proc. For in-tov and fact. Inostr. Yaz. M.: HigherSchool, 1990. P. 20.2.
- Literary encyclopedia of terms and concepts / Ed. A. N. Nikolyukin. Institute of Scientific Information on Social sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences. M.: NPK «Interval», 2003. P. 221.
- www.literture collection.corn / a / o_henry /. Entnommen aus: HEINEMANN ELT GUIDED READERS. O.Henry, The LastLeaf and Other Stories.
- D. Uronov, Z. Mamajonov, M. Sheralyeva. Adabytshunoshnik luati. T.: Akademnash. 2010. P 89.
- J. Henry. Sanggi yaproq // Sharq Yulduzi. 2011 yil № 4, p 92–96.