In the light of changes in Uzbekistan, on the backdrop of extensive social and economic and political reforms extremely acutely raises the question of necessity of development of civil society which is not only defined structure, but also a completely new quality of life . However, the development and efficiency of the institutes of civil society critically depends on relations to them of the citizens. In this respect it is interesting the analysis of this dual unity that is society-personality, civil society-civil identity and also the problems of the socialization of personality in the process of evolution.
It would be better to begin the study of these subjects from the analysis of civil society. Modern literature accumulated the wide range of definitions of civil society. Of course, peculiarities and variety of definitions of this phenomenon are connected partly with peculiarities of studying objects of researches. But basing on the essential features and generalizing them, civil society can be defined as a set of social formations combined by specific economical, cultural and other interests realizing out of sphere of activity of the state and allowing controlling the actions of state system.
Personality in civil society integrates in different referent groups which most fully expresses his interests, also not allowing the government to usurp or restrict the liberty of personality excessively . By its quality it is society with developed economic, legal, cultural and other relations.
Be that as it may, for reaching of this social quality it is necessary realizing by citizens of community of group interests, man’s identity with other individuals who have analogous social signs, readiness in this or that form to support corresponding community, participate in its activity and, ultimately, actively stand up for group interests regarding them as expression of your own. That is saying in the language of modern science, it should be drawn up the culture of civicism, the culture of participation in social life.
The bases of relations “personality-society” are laid during the process of primary socialization . Personality joins in active relation, contact, realizes his own role in society. The peculiarities of his social environment are primary premises of socialization.
Undoubtedly, family is one of these primary cells where are worked out the models of behavior and forms of communication with people. “Eastern”, “Uzbek”, “national” family has in this plan its peculiarities. Respect for elders, the authority of the head of household, intra-unity, respectful subordination of communication, respect for family traditions, and so on, as a rule, are predetermining values of the family. This atmosphere promotes internization of socialized generation of forms of behavior and value systems adopted in the family circle.
On the orientation and models of behavior of the individual is significantly affected the social status of the family, because it determines the type of social environment. The higher the status of the family, the richer value orientations. As person gets older along with the strength of family ties, it increases the value of the external reference groups. It can be community of peers, school staff as well as the first formal and informal organizations. Important moment here is the conformity of orientations of these referent groups to the family orientations, thereby it hardens the primary socialization of the individual.
It is necessary to admit the peculiar role of school. It essentially serves as a “second family”. But unlike the family school expands verge of social consciousness, giving knowledge and teaching arithmetic citizenship. School education is an important “stalker”, the conductor of the individual as an independent sociality output. School along with the family teaches the basics of public culture, developing the foundations of citizenship. Here it is laid the ideological basis of the individual. An important support in this direction is the mahalla. Along with the school it carries out educational, orienting, controlling functions. In accordance with the requirements of the family, it complements the primary value attitudes of behavior and communication.
Performing two related but still distinct impact on the individual mahalla — social control and proper training, exercises it controls over the behavior of the individual. If it is necessary it applies to the person various measures, including the authorization to the external side behavior under all conditions corresponded to social requirements. In this regard, the mahalla as one of the civil society cells develops a sense of group cohesion and personal responsibility to society.
As the individual grows older and the enters into an independent practical life it increases the volume and intensity of the impact, significantly expands the scope of communication . This is subsequent phase of socialization of a person.
As the primary basis of relationships of the individual and social environment and the retractor in its system of institutions of civil society it acts as its nearest non-formal unity. Undoubtedly, the individual is related to the reality at the level of society as a whole. However, in its immediate activities, everyday existence it first confronted with the practice of its informal team, participates in solving its problems, is influenced by the conditions of its existence. Initially, these are children's, teen reference groups, later in life adult groups of becoming an indispensable factor in the development and modification of public consciousness throughout a person's life. Degree level in an appropriate union solidarity, in the collective, in the group associated with the degree of intensity of the impact of group consciousness on the formation of individual consciousness.
The result of socialization is objectively caused by the inclusion of an individual in one of the existing biggest social communities that are significantly different from each other in the degree of cohesion and organization.
- Акмаль Саидов, Особенности развития институтов гражданского общества в Узбекистане. Независимая газета “Новости Узбекистана”. 2007г, 13 апреля.
- Узаков Д. Гражданское общество и права человека. –Ташкент, 2005. — С.122.
- Магомедов К. О. Гражданское общество и государство: Монография. М, 1998. — С.24.
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