Language is the most important means of communication, the existence and development of human society is impossible without it. The current changes in social relations, communication means (the use of new information technologies) require increasing the communicative competence of students, improving their philological preparation. In order they could exchange their thoughts in different situations in the process of interaction with other communicators, using the system of language and speech norms and choosing communicative behavior adequate to the authentic situation of communication. In other words, the main purpose of a foreign language is to form a communicative competence, that is, the ability to carry out interpersonal and intercultural communication between a foreigner to one and native speakers. Educational aspect is an integral part of the educational process.
Modern educational technologies that are used to form the communicative competence of a schoolchild in learning another language are the most productive for creating an educational environment that provides a person-oriented interaction of all participants in the educational process. It is obvious that using any one technology of education, no matter how perfect it is, will not create the most effective conditions for the disclosure and development of students' abilities and creativeness of a teacher.
Modern technologies of teaching foreign languages accumulate successful information of each of them, enable the teacher to adjust any technology in accordance with the structure, functions, content, goals and objectives of training in the particular group of students.
The search for new pedagogical technologies is associated with the lack of positive motivation of students in learning a foreign language. Positive motivation is inadequate, because when learning a foreign language students face significant difficulties and do not learn the material because of their psychological characteristics.
Currently, more and more teachers are turning to the communicative method of learning English. The object of this method is speech itself, that is, this technique first of all teaches us to communicate.
The long-term practice of teaching English proves that teaching with traditional technologies does not allow developing key, basic competencies in a particular academic discipline, so a drastic reorganization of the educational process is needed. For example, the active use of resources of the World Wide Web by the teachers significantly increased the effectiveness of self-education of teachers of a foreign language. Internet services provide access to the latest socio-cultural, linguistic-cultural and other valuable information. It is obvious that the role of the teacher is currently changing; the boundaries between him and the trainee are becoming transparent, which promotes cooperation. The role of the learner increases, learner participates not only in obtaining knowledge, but also in its search, development, transformation into practical skills . At the present stage of learning, the communicative approach of teaching plays an active role in the formation of adequate communication among students. Communicative method implies a great activity of students. The teacher's task in this case is involving all students of the class into conversation . For better memorization and use of the language, all channels of perception must be loaded. The essence of the communicative method is to create real communication situations. When recreating the dialogue, the student has the opportunity to apply all the knowledge in practice that was gained before.
A very important advantage of the communicative method is that it has a huge variety of exercises: role games, dialogues, and simulation of real communication are used here .
Recently more and more teachers are using the project methodology in the process of teaching a foreign language as one of the modern productive creative approaches that successfully implement the main objectives of teaching a foreign language in the formation of communicative and speech skills, which are necessary for students to communicate in a foreign language.
The main purpose of the project method is to provide students with the opportunity acquiring knowledge independently in the process of solving practical tasks or problems that require the integration of knowledge from different subjects. If we talk about the method of projects as a pedagogical technology, this technology involves a set of research, searching, problematic methods, which are creative in nature. The teacher in the project is assigned as a developer, coordinator, expert and consultant.
This technology contributes to the development of the creative abilities of students and develops their imagination and curiosity. During the preparation of projects, the creative and intellectual potential of student is revealed. The method of projects teaches to conduct a research work, working in a team, conduct a discussion, solve problems.
The project method can be used in teaching a foreign language on almost any topic, since the selection of subjects was carried out taking into account the practical importance for the student.
Here is the example of applying the project methodology while studying the topic «School» in English lessons.
The common goal is to create a school project in which all the children would like to learn. The students are divided into groups based on the desires of the children to work together to solve a certain part of the overall task. Parts of the project are discussed in groups. As a result, the following areas of work will be singled out:
1) the creation of a school building project, its design and school territory;
2) compiling rules for students and teachers of the school;
3) a description of the school day;
4) a description of extra-curricular activities of children;
5) a school uniform project.
At one of the last lessons, the project will be protected by groups. Each group will make their presentation. Such tasks are very exciting for students, they feel responsibility for the performance of such work. At the same time, they master such skills as working with the Microsoft Power Point program, the ability to find interesting materials, illustrations. And at the very performance students learn to declare, develop their oratory skills, ability to prove and defend their point of view, spontaneously answer to the questions asked, they do not be afraid of public speaking and become self-confident.
The project method is being widely introduced into educational practice in Uzbekistan. Projects can be individual and group, local and telecommunication. In the latter case, a group of trainees can work on the project on the Internet, being territorially divided. However, any project can have a website that reflects the progress of work on it. The task of the training project, the results of which are presented in the form of a website, is to provide an answer to the problematic issue of the project and comprehensively highlight the progress of its receipt, that is, the study itself.
Life in modern society requires from students such important cognitive skills as the ability to develop their own opinion, to comprehend the experience, to build a chain of evidence, to express themselves clearly and confidently. The technology of developing students' critical thinking involves asking students questions and understanding the problem that needs to be addressed. Critical thinking has an individual character, each generates its own ideas, formulates its assessments and beliefs independently, finds its own solution to the problem and supports it with reasonable, valid and convincing arguments. Critical thinking has a social character, since every thought is tested when it is shared with others. The pupil's own active life position is especially evident when comparing previous knowledge and concepts with newly obtained ones. There are various forms of work that involve the development of students' critical thinking: essays, essay-reasoning, discussion, dialogue, role play, etc.
A special place is occupied by research technology, where students enter a high level of cognition, independent activity and development of a new problem vision, mastering of research procedures. A generalized basic model within the framework of the study is the model of learning as a creative search: from the vision and formulation of the problem to the hypothesis advancement, their verification, cognitive reflection on the results and process of cognition. Variants of the research model are game modeling, discussion, interviewing, solving problematic problems, etc.
Using elements of intensive training not at the expense of extra hours on the subject, but by the selection of methods and techniques, allow students to «immerse» in a foreign environment, where it is possible not only to speak but also to think in English. To develop abilities for intercultural communication, it is important to give students a full range of knowledge about the culture, customs and traditions of the English-speaking country so that students have an objective picture and can consciously choose the style of communication. Modeling situations of the dialogue of cultures in English classes allows students to compare the features of people's way of life in our country and the countries of the studied language, helping them to understand better the culture of our country and developing their ability to represent it in English. This approach is possible only if authentic teaching aids are used.
«Language portfolio» is a tool for self-evaluation of the cognitive, creative work of the student, reflection of his own activity. This is a set of documents, independent work of the student. The set of documents is developed by the teacher and provides: tasks for schoolchildren in the selection of material in the portfolio; Questionnaires for parents, the completion of which involves a careful examination of the student's works; Parameters and evaluation criteria embedded in the portfolio of works. Experimental technology for creating a portfolio is a way to visualize your achievements for a certain period of training, the ability to demonstrate abilities and practically apply the acquired knowledge and skills. Portfolio allows to take into account the results achieved by the student in a variety of activities: educational, social, communicative, etc., and is an important element of the practice-oriented, valid approach in education. Students see their growth form a database of their achievements for the entire period of study (projects, certificates, reviews, reviews on individual creative activities).
Information and communication technologies are increasingly used in the organization of the educational process, they allow us to consider productively all possible aspects (from linguistic to cultural), improve foreign speech activity. Their usage contributes to the improvement of the linguistic and intercultural competencies of students, the formation of culture of communication in the electronic environment, the enhancement of the informational culture in general, and the development of computer skills: searching, processing, transferring, systematization of information and presentation of the results of research activities by students.
An interactive approach is a certain type of activity of students, connected with the study of the educational material in the course of the interactive lesson.
The core of interactive approaches are interactive exercises and tasks that are performed by students. The main difference between interactive exercises and tasks from ordinary ones is that they are directed not only and not so much to consolidate the material already studied, but rather to study a new one. Modern pedagogy is rich in interactive approaches, among which are the following:
− Creative tasks.
− Working in small groups.
− Educational games (role games, imitations, business games and educational games).
− Usage of public resources (invitation of a specialist, excursions).
− Social projects and other out-of-school teaching methods (social projects, competitions, radio and newspapers, films, performances, exhibitions, performances, songs and fairy tales).
− Studying and fixing new material (interactive lecture, working with visual aids, video and audio materials, «student as a teacher», «everyone teaches everyone»).
− Discussion of complex and controversial issues and problems.
Under creative assignments, we understand such study assignments that require from students not simply reproduce information, but creativity as well, since tasks contain a greater or lesser element of suspense and as a rule have several approaches. The creative task is the content and the basis of any interactive method. The creative task (especially practical and close to the life of the student) gives meaning to learning, motivates students. Uncertainty of the answer and the opportunity to find student's own «right» solution, based on personal experience and experience of his colleague, friend, allow creating a foundation for cooperation, communication and communication of all participants in the educational process, including the teacher. The choice of a creative task is in itself a creative task for the teacher, since it is required to find a task that would meet the following criteria’s:
− does not have an unambiguous and monosyllabic answer or solution
− is practical and useful for students
− is related to the life of students
− motivates students
− maximizes the learning objectives.
If students are not used to work creatively, then you gradually should introduce simple exercises first, and then more and more complex tasks.
Working in small groups is one of the most popular strategies, as it gives all students (including shy) the opportunity to participate in activities, practice the skills of cooperation, interpersonal communication (in particular, the ability to listen actively, develop a common opinion, resolve emerging disagreements). All of these are often impossible in a large team. Working in a small group is an integral part of many interactive methods, such as debates, public listening, almost all types of imitations, etc.
When organizing group work, you should pay attention to the following aspects:
− the teacher must be sure that students have the knowledge and skills necessary to complete the group assignment. Lack of knowledge will soon be felt — students will not make efforts to complete the assignment.
− the teacher must try to make the instructions as clear as possible. It is unlikely that the group will be able to perceive more than one or two, even very clear, instructions at a time, so you need to write instructions on the board and cards.
− the teacher must give the group enough time to complete the task.
As for the practical application of technology, it is not necessary to use only one technology. It would be better to integrate several educational technologies, combining their best aspects. We can make a conclusion that it is this pedagogical system that facilitates the disclosure of the subjective experience of the student, the formation of personally-meaningful ways of learning, the education of moral ideals, the development of critical thinking, adequate evaluation and self-evaluation, the self-improvement of each student and the opportunity to realize themselves as a person.
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- Domashnev A. I. and others.» Methods of teaching English in a pedagogical university». M., 1983. – 240 s.
- «The main directions in the teaching of foreign languages in the XX century». Ed. M. V. Rakhmanov. M., 1972. – 168 s.
- E. S. Polat. New pedagogical technologies in teaching foreign languages. Foreign languages at school-2002 № 1. C. 22–27.
- Conditions for improving the quality of foreign language education: materials of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference (Kazan, December 5–6, 2007).