A competently constructed, impeccable speech of a person is his business card, an indicator of education. This statement has been living for more than a decade and is applicable to the culture and language of any country. The general linguistic culture of a person is the admission into the world of another language. Every language of the world has many common sections, objects, phenomena. One of the most difficult sections for each language is grammar. Like no other language section, the grammar requires logic, completeness, accuracy of expression.
Therefore, in the process of teaching English it is especially important to pay close attention to the pronunciation, the development of lexical skills, and teaching the grammatical side of the subject. Specific activities that learners acquire in the process of studying the subject «foreign language» is communicative (speech) activity. Learning grammar aims to teach the learner to speak correctly and to understand perceived text. This means that the task is not to master the grammatical system of a foreign language, all forms and constructions, but to develop the skills and skills of grammatically correct speech. According to the definition of E. I. A passive, grammatical skill is the ability of the speaker to instantly choose a model adequate to the speech task and formalize it according to the norms of the given language.
The problem of the formation of grammatical skills is constantly attracting the attention of teachers and methodologists, since the grammatical skill is an integral part of any speech skill and, undoubtedly, affects the effectiveness of both the understanding of the stranger and the construction of one's own speech. Without grammar, the mastery of any form of speech is not conceivable, since grammar along with vocabulary and sound composition is the material basis of speech. Mastering the grammatical structure of the studied language is necessary, in order to practically use this language. At the same time, the goal of learning grammar when installing for practical use is the formation of grammatical skills.
Language training must necessarily correspond to the fact that speech is a definite reaction in a certain situation, therefore situational grammar should become the basic principle of teaching a foreign language not only for reasons of the theory of linguistics, but also according to the requirements of didactics.
The use of situation with regard to the formation of grammatical skills provides the following:
First, the lesson in the formation of grammatical skills is grammatical only in terms of the material, in spirit it must be verbal. It is situational grammar that can realize this principle.
Secondly, situations not only motivate the student to perform various actions, but also contribute to the emergence of such quality as flexibility, i.e. Ability to «turn on» in a new situation, the ability to function on new material.
Thirdly, situations allow us to activate certain grammatical structures without focusing on them, develop imagination, force learners to formalize their thoughts in a foreign language using certain grammatical phenomena.
The goal of situational grammatical exercises is the formation of grammatical skills. The most effective are the transformational and substitution exercises with various supports, visualization. In the future, it is possible to use such exercises without attracting support (skill improvement stage).
The productivity of the use of the situation in the formation of grammatical skills is that the composition of the situation includes numerous tasks that make the learning process of the grammar more multifaceted, interesting and effective.
One of the conditions for successful implementation of these innovative transformations is the use of communicatively oriented methods in the teaching of grammar. With the communicative method, the learning process is a model of the communication process. At the same time, communicative approach presupposes the speech orientation of the learning process, individualization, functionality and situationality of learning. Based on this, it can be said that the application of this technique can be effective in teaching the grammatical aspect of the language on the basis of the situation, since grammar can not be separated from speech.
Also, a necessary condition for the implementation of situational grammar is the use of an inductive method, since:
– At each stage, the mechanism of guessing is actively formed;
– the nature of the grammatical material in most cases allows the derivation of the rule on the abstract by the students themselves;
– when adjusting the rules that the students learn, the teacher can avoid using difficult grammatical terms;
Grammar of the English language, like any other, is engaged in studying the structure and changes in words, types of word combinations and types of sentences. In other words, it is a certain set of norms and rules that are used in the construction of literate speech. With the help of theoretical knowledge of grammar, we master the system of language and form the skills of proper speech construction. Someone thinks that grammar is not complicated and does not cause any inconvenience. Why is the English grammar given to others so hard for others? As it seems to me, the fact is that with the word «grammar» we immediately imagine a list of boring, tedious, uninteresting rules that need to be crammed to at least something to remember. A decade ago it was so. However, in our days, with a large assortment of material, the teaching of English grammar can be made an exciting cognitive process.
I would like to emphasize: now many people prefer to say that grammar is not needed at all. It is only necessary to enrich your vocabulary, get into the language environment — voila, it's done! Do you speak English. Yes, you will speak, the only question is — at what level? This principle builds the practice of English speech with native speakers. Its main goal is to remove the language barrier, that is, fear of speaking in English. Errors in speech do not matter. The main thing is to talk as much as possible and you will be understood. But the presence in your arsenal of a large number of words and the complete lack of knowledge about how to use them together, after all, will force you to study the grammar of the English language. That's why I advise you not to contact media before you get the basic basis of grammar. But you do not need to go too far. Like grammar, it is necessary to practice other skills and skills: reading, writing, speaking, listening. All this should go in a complex — here in this case you will achieve the necessary effect.
First of all, it is worth remembering that English is not your native language, to which you are so used and which you use in communication, practically without thinking about theory. A foreign language requires respect and understanding that it can be different from yours. When teaching English grammar, there are problems with comprehension of this or that phenomenon, for example, an article or a large number of times. And here it is not necessary to include logic here and try to compare all this with the uzbek language. Try to understand and accept these norms only as features of the English language. So you do not harm your nervous system and will not be disgusted about grammar. Never start studying a more complex material if you are not sure that its foundation «stands firmly». Only a solid knowledge of the basics will help you to relatively easily perceive things more complicated. And most importantly, in my opinion — this is, first of all, the embodiment, and then the development of the acquired theoretical information.
The best way to remember the theory is presented with the help of visual aids. It can be schemes, tables, drawings, models, presentations, that is all that allows you to visually show the meaning of this rule. This goal, for example, serves as a resource englishtenseswithcartoons.com, which explains the English language with pictures and flash-cartoons. Of the books is interesting «Picture Grammar for Children» by David Vale. And you can still teach the grammar of English based on songs, as suggested by Mark Hancock in his book «Teaching Grammar through songs». The main thing is never to learn grammar on «bare» examples, completely divorced from life situations. Everything that you study or give to someone for study, should be presented in the context of real conversational speech.
And, of course, the most useful part of teaching English grammar is the practice of theory for activating grammatical material and developing speech. Let it be not only exercises (in large numbers), but also a variety of games, dialogues, competitions. And ideas for all of the above can be gleaned from the books Peter Watcyn-Jones, entitled «Grammar Games and Activities» and «More Grammar Games and Activities».
In addition, it is necessary to present methodological requirements, which any educational situation should answer:
- The educational situation, if possible, should be adequate to the actual situation of communication, in which the learned linguistic phenomena are used.
- The learning situation should be extremely clear to the learner. It means:
– clearly defined speech task;
– Students know how to perform the task, what tools are needed to carry it out.
When situations that can be created in the classroom do not allow explaining or fixing the grammatical material, one should move on to visual, memorable and unambiguous images that can be of great help to both the learner and the teacher. Represented by visual aids with the help of modern information and multimedia teaching tools, a specially selected situation enlivens the lesson and promotes better mastery of the material.
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