Before observing or researching a question about the translation of words belonging to a different layers of the dictionary, it should be noted that to think about the word of local dialects and jargonizms. In translating local dialects hardly gives a chance to use dialects of a language, into which the translations done as it expresses wrong association and alien national color. Translation of local dialects arise difficult task, the salvation of which can only be possible by adequate changing. It should be, especially, used neutral lexics and syntactic possibilities of a language and to run to such deviation from norms of literal language which has no bright expressed local and national colour. For example: .
I was born at Blunderstone in Suffolk or “thereby” as they say in Scotland. (Ch. Dickens, “DavidCopperfield”)
Яродился в Бландерстонеб в графстве суффольк, или «около того» как говорят в Шотландии.
Translation of jargonizms and professionalisms do not cause difficulty in translation as local dialects and national color is not so observed in them and a translator can easily find corresponding or confirming equivalent .
The so-called international words are of great interest by the point of translation. These are common for several languages and traces back to one source. They are usually borrowed either directly from this source or through by means of other language. In Russian international words are divided into two groups .
The first group contains such words those have the same meaning, for example, radio, atom, allegro, press, vase, football, tennis and etc. They do not cause difficulty to translate.
The second group contains such words those, in Russian, have a) absolutely different meaning than in any languages; b) narrower meaning and c) wider meaning.
Translation of the first causes is difficult. Analogous word come into a translator’s mind which has different meaning in Russian. For example, English word rent has the meaning “квартирная плата”, but it has the meaning “рента” which in Russian has the meaning “доход от ценных бумаг”. English word complexion— «цвет лица», and Russian word “комплекция” — has the meaning “телосложение’. English word compositerhas the meaning “наборщик”, and Russian “композитор” has the meaning “автор музыкального произведения” .
An example, for second group may be English word meeting which doesn’t always conform Russian “митинг”. The main meaning of the English word (derived from the verb to meet) is “встреча”, “свидание”. For example, “a meeting of old friends”- “встреча старых друзей”. The meaning “политическое собрание” is secondary. Russian word “агония” has a narrow meaning-“предсмертные страдания”, as in English the word agony also means to exaggerate one’s distress for sympathy or greater effect, for example, “ she was in an agony of tears”- “она безутешно рыдала”, “she was in an agony of expectation”-“она сгорала от нетерпения”, “испытывала муки ожидания” .
It is a Muller’s dictionary which all these above-mentioned. A translator only has to use them in their right places.
International words can belong to different layers of the dictionary: stylistic-neutral words, scientific terms, bookish and etc.
International words are often stumbling-blocks for an inexperienced translator. Not without reason is it said “false friends” of a translator. A translator think about ethimologic-identical Russian word and forgets that its meaning and usage doesn’t matc with English one. For instance,
… he was strongly built, with curly hair that seemed to show all the vitality of a fine constitution. (the man of property, J.Galsworthy). In this example the word constitution is used as “телосложение”. In Russian “конституция” gas also this meaning but it is a special medical term. That’s why it cannot be translated as
“… он был крепко сложен, а его вьющиеся волосы, казалось, говорили о жизнеспособности и здоровый конституции!”
The right translation would be in this case:
“… о жизнеспособности здорового организма”.
In this meaning the word constitution and “конституция” are not adequate, as, in spite of coincidence of meaning, there sphere of usage is different as they belong to different layers of the dictionary. A translator has to draw attention to a context or in other case to his institution, as we mentioned above that the dictionary may help not in every case. but such mistakes are made even by experienced translators. For example, I.Vvedensky translated Dickens’ novel “David Copperfield”:
“Now my dear Dora, you must know that I never said that”.
“You said that I wasn’t comfortable”, said Dora.
“I said the housekeeping wasn’t comfortable”.
«Но ты должна знать, душенька, что я никогда не говорил»
«Ты сказал, что я не комфортабельна»
«Совсем нет. Я сказал, что в нашем хозяйстве нет комфорта». .
Some mistakes in the course of translation of international words firmly take root in translation practice. For instance, a word practically, having meaning «трогательный», «жалкий», «патетический» is almost always translated Dramatic, having also meaning “Sudden”, “striking”, “impressive” is usually as “драматический”. A translator should be very careful in translation of such words. For example,
Liberal estimates (conservative estimates) - по широким подсчетам (по скромным подсчетам).
A comfortable income — not комфортабельный доход but хороший доход.
The history of this expression goes back to the past. Poor debtors found shelter from creditors in the cathedral of St. Paul, where there was tomb of duke Humpry. To the question of joker-whether they go with them to dine, debtots usually answered that they would dine with duke Humpry.
During translation it is advised to use such conformities as a translator should keep a principle that he has to give primary as primary, in other case a proverb or a saying may leave impression to a Russian or other language reader something unexpected and original. That’s why English saying “At a snail’s pace” should be translated with Russian “черепашьим шагом”.
The third group comprises such proverbs and sayings which have no conformity in Russian or other languages. They are translated either with explanatory notes or a saying created by a translator:
Little pitchers have long ears.
Дети любят слушать разговоры взрослых.
С. Phraseological units, which let translator of one of their elements, do not cause difficulty in translation. But a translator should keep in mind that in Russian there are confirming free combinations, which may be used during translation. For instance, combination to play a part conforms to Russian “играть роль”. Buttotake partin Russian has “принимать участие”.
A translator should always follow norms of Russian but by not only using dictionary meaning including free combination of components. For instance, take:
Take it easy- относитесь к этому спокойно
It should be kept in Mind that synonymic variants, as a rule, do not exist in another language. For example, English synonym variant of to give (cast, throw) a glance has in Russian one combination “бросить взгляд” .
In every language there are many traditional combinations os words, on one hand limited by their semantics, and on the other — by general practice of their usage. Such traditional combinations do not conform in different languages. Keeping a combination in translation, which is typical to another language, would be word translation and breaching the norms of a language into which the translation is done. To translated into Russian such combinations should be translated by conforming ones existing in it .
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