This article is devoted to the linguacultural aspects of concept “happiness/bakht” in modern English and Uzbek languages. Furthermore, it is analyzed both as common value of humankind as well as cultural specifity of some nation.
Keywords: concept,cognitive linguistics, linguaculture, phraseological units, national cultural aspects
В статье рассматриваются средства вербализации концепта ‘happiness / бахт’ как в качестве универсальной, так и национально-специфичной ментальной структуры в английском и узбекском языках.
Ключевые слова: концепт, когнитивная лингвистика, линвокультура, фразеологические единицы, национально-культурная специфика
One of the important terms in cognitive linguistics and lingvoculture is the term “concept”. It attracted the attention of many researchers, interested in issues related to concept and the property of the human thinking. After analyzing a wide variety of issues on the nature of the concept, scientists have come to the certain conclusions concerning concept. As we know, the concept is not only based on lingvocultural field of the hierarchical system of units but also it has a common value and reflecting system of relevant cultures. In recent years, Uzbekistan has increased the number of studies on study concepts.We have analyzed linguacultural concept of “happiness” (bakht) in both English and Uzbek languages.
This concept is considered from the standpoint of comparative linguistics and translation studies in terms of the analysis of lexical and phraseological fields of concept of “happiness” (bakht). It should be noted that a certain idea of happiness is one of the key point, which largely dictates the way it perceives itself as an objective reality. Humankind builds his own world on the basis of these ideas of happiness. People can not live without making any judgments about the concepts of happiness.
Thereafter, the word “happiness” (bakht) sounds different in different languages; in each language has its synonym field. The study of verbalization of the concept of “happiness” (bakht) in both English and Uzbek pictures of the world led to the conclusion that in the perception of this concept there are both general and specific aspects, which enables us to consider this concept has universal and national-specific mental structures.Concept of “happiness / bakht” refers to a person's feelings and reflects satisfaction, so you can understand that feeling “happiness / bakht”' associated with emotions close to joy, considering sense of joy in the background. In English, concept of happiness can be expressed by such basic concepts as “luck” (good luck), “pleasure”, “joy”, “ecstasy”, “satisfaction”. The lexical-semantic field of concept happiness “bakht” in Uzbek language relates as “saodat” (the highest degree of happiness), “Omad” (good luck) «shodlik» (fun), “hursandchilik” (joy), “takdir” (fate).
It is clear that in both English and Uzbek languages happiness express as feelings. In both languages “happiness / bakht” show significant positive moments. In etymological dictionaries concept “happiness” appears as a noun, which dates back to “hap” (case, good luck), which according to “Cassel’s concise English dictionary” and “A concise etymological dictionary of the English language” it has Scandinavian derivation. According to dictionaries the word happiness forms as “happy” adjective, “happiness” as a noun by suffixed way. The Uzbek etymological dictionary gives “bakht” as persian derivation. An analysis of the etymological dictionaries show us that concept of “bakht” has semantic and linguacultural aspects. Comparative characteristics of concept “happiness / Bakht” make a number of synonyms in the English language: happy, lucky, felicity, fortunate, bliss, pleasure, joy, glad, rap, fortunate, bliss, pleasure, joy, glad, rap fortunate, bliss, pleasure, joy, glad, rap, bliss, pleasure, joy, glad, rap bliss, pleasure, joy, glad, rap, pleasure, joy, glad, rap pleasure, joy, glad, rap, joy, glad, rap joy, glad, rap, glad, rap glad, rap, rap rapture, contentment, delight, enjoyment, exaltation. In Uzbek language there are also synonyms can be given as an example: saodat, omad, shodlik, hursandchilik, ikbol, masud, rohat, farogat, mamnunlik.
The analysis show that synonymous in the ranks of the concept “Happiness / Bakht” observed semantical correlative pairs:
– glad — mamnunlik (Rejoice)
– fortunate — ikbol, omad (good luck)
– contentment rohat, farogat (satisfaction).
In both languages concept “happiness” shows fortune (luck) and satisfaction (contentment).There are some examples in English: often uses fortune (happiness) is easily found, but hard to be kept (easy to find happiness, it is difficult to hold); fortune is good to him, who knows to make good use of it (smiles happiness that, who knows how to use them well) ride one's luck (to rely on your luck); lucky at cards, unlucky in love (who are lucky in cards, to have no luck in love), better to be born as a lucky than wise (better to be born lucky than wise). In Uzbek language:
– ishning omadi — oz vaqti bor (lucky thing has its time)
– omad kelsa sichqon filni yengar (if luck comes, mouse win an elephant)
– rohat mehnatning orqasida (Happiness comes by making effort), halol mehnat — yahshi odat, berur senga saodat (Honest work will lead to happiness)
– mehnat -farogat chirogi (labor — it is the light of happiness).
Comparative analysis of lexical phraseological units verbalized the concept of “happiness” in the English and Uzbek languages identified as similar and is distinctive singularities. Similar associations between concepts “bakht” and “happiness” appear in the following categories:
– Happiness — children: he doesn’t know what love is who has no children (who do not have children, that doesnt know its value). Farzand bakhti ona takhti, farzand kamogli — ota jamol (child’s happiness — is the happiness of parents).
– Happiness — work: early to bed and early to rise makes a man health, wealthy and wise. Mehnat — Bakht keltirar (Work brings happiness).
– Happiness — courage: fortune favors the bold, (bold is always luck), Bakht qochganga emas, quvganga tutqich berar (happiness catches one who runs after him and not the one who runs out).
Furthermore, according to the national outlook, everyone in both nations the builds of its own happiness: the architect of one’s own fortunes, ҳар бир инсон ўз тақдирининг меъмори. The following are the association in Uzbek:
– Happiness — Knowledge: Bilim — bakht keltirar (knowledge brings happiness).
– Happiness — Time: vaqting ketdi — bakhting ketdi (it took time — happiness is gone).
– Happiness — Union: bakht qaerda -ittifoqlikda (happiness — in the Union).
– Happiness — Joy: bakht kulgu bor uyga kirar (happiness comes in a joyful house).
– Happiness — Friendship: bakht garovi — do’stlik (pledge of happiness — friendship).
– Happiness — destiny: bakht — sandiqda, kaliti osmonda (happiness in the chest and key in the heaven).
– Happiness — Success: bahtli ovchiga cho’loq kiyik yo’liqar (happy hunter meets lame deer).
– Happiness — loyalty: ahdi borning bahti bor (faithful man is happy)
The British luck is associated in the following way:
– Happiness — Health: good health is above wealth (better to be healthy than rich).
– Happiness — career: carve out a career for oneself a career.
– Happiness — glory: have the world at one's feet (have a brilliant success, to conquer the world to win universal recognition).
– Happiness — goal: bring one's mind to pass, fulfill, have or obtain one's mind (to seek its goal).
As the analysis of the linguistic material, “Happiness” in both languages considered the positive emotions and is positive evaluation. However, in Uzbek language it has seeing negative connotation. For example, saying “Birovning bakhti, birovning ko’zini chiqaribdi” which translates as (someone else's happiness,another man’s unhappiness) denotes that not everyone can rejoice in another's happiness.
The concept of “Happiness” has metaphorical units in Uzbek language:
– Happiness — Poultry: Bakht qushi boshiga qo’ndi (bird of happiness on his head).
– Happiness — subject: Bakhtin sinamoq (Experience happiness), Bakhtin bermok (give happiness).
– Happiness — a living organism: Bakhti kulgan (Smiling happiness) Bakhti ochilgan (lucky person) omad kelgan (luck has come).
In English can be analyzed in the following way:
– Happiness — subject: mark with a white stone (marked white stone).
– Happiness — gastronomy: life is a bowl of cherries (life as a full bowl of cherries), the land flowing with milk and honey (ground abounds by milk and honey), have one's cake baked (There is a fresh-faced pie have the means, the state live in prosperity).
– Happiness — status of a person: like a lord, like a prince (Lord of life, the Prince).
It should be noted that the English proverb also tend to have opposition like happiness and unhappiness-he knows best what good is that has endured evil (not experiencing misfortune, you never know value of happiness). Concept “happiness” in both languages could be used as evident in the use of national-cultural specificity, for example the English proverb: “lucky at cards, unlucky in love (who are unlucky in cards that have no luck in love).
The analysis of the concept shows that there is also revealed gender pecularities.Thus, in the Uzbek language the description of the female has a positive emotion which shows tha value of her internal soul qualities, the priority of family relationship:
– yaxshi hotin oilaning davlati va bakhti (a good wife is the happiness of the family)
– hotin bakhti — erda bo'lar (the happiness of the wife depends on her husband).
The concept of happiness in Uzbek language connected with a girl or woman. There are some more examples concerning this point:
– Bolani bakhtini bersin / bakhti ochilsin (let the girl be happy)
– хон тахтидан қўрқар,қиз — бахтидан(the king is afraid of losing his throne and the girl by her own happiness)
– қизга олтиндан тахт эмас, бармоқдай бахт тила (do not wish a golden throne for a girl, but better happiness)
– қизнинг бахти — эрнинг давлати (woman's happiness — the wealth of the husband)
– ҳар нарсанинг вақти бор, ҳар бир қизнинг бахти бор (There is a certain time for everything as every girl has her own happiness).
In this context, the happiness of a girl or a woman is perceived as a successful marriage. By the same time there is something said about men:
– ҳар йигитга бир омад (every man has one luck)
– йигит бошидан давлат йироқ кетмас (happiness and wealth will not go far away from the man), there is a man's happiness seen in a big fortune and wealth.
It is clear that cultural identity of English people, playing cards is one of the favorite leisure activities of British people.On another hand, in the Uzbek language can be seen cultural identity of the people: Bakht — sandikda, Kaliti — Osmonda (happiness in chest, and the key is in the heavens). Since ancient times, the Uzbek save and hide their most valuable items in some accessible place as a chest which gives a clear conclusion that happiness for the Uzbek nation important and valuable. In conclusion, we can say that the concept of “happiness / bakht” can be analyzed as common value of humankind as well as cultural specifity of some nation.
- Кубрякова Е. С. Логический анализ языка: культурные концепты М.: Наука, 1991. 270 c.
- Раҳматуллаев Ш. Ўзбек тилининг этимологик луғати. Ташкент, 2003. 182 б.
- Ўзбек халқ мақоллари. Тошкент: Фан,1987. 86 б.
- A Concise Etymological Dictionary Of Modern English.
- Cassel’s concise English dictionary. Finland, 1997. 467p.