This article considers the culture of speech as an academic discipline. As well as the analysis of the study of speech in higher education as an integral part of the cycle of humanitarian disciplines, designed for students of all disciplines.
Key words: higher education, culture of speech, ethical standards, scientific discipline, social atmosphere, interpersonal relations
In the modern era of higher education it is particularly important for sustainable development of society along the path of economic reform, building a legal state and the humanization of social relations.
This special role of higher education contains not only the training of qualified personnel who are able to effectively manage the economy and legal institutions in today's rapidly changing world, but also in creating a favorable social atmosphere, in improving the culture of social and interpersonal relations. This problem can be solved only if the university graduate will receive the necessary knowledge and skills model of ownership literary literate and beautiful speech at the national speech.
The subject of the culture of speech as an academic discipline is the norm of the literary language, types of communication, its principles and rules, ethics of communication, functional styles of speech, the foundations of the art of speech, as well as the difficulties in applying the rules of speech and the problems of the current state of speech culture of the society. (2, p.78)
The most important tasks of discipline are: strengthening and improving the skills of ownership norms of the national literary language; the formation of the communicative competence of the expert; training to professional dialogue in the chosen specialty; the development of skills in searching and evaluating information; development of verbal skills to prepare for difficult professional situations of communication (negotiations, discussions, etc.); improve the culture of speaking, voice training means to establish and maintain friendly personal relations.
The main objective of the course is the formation of speech culture model of the language of person — highly educated professionals, it is corresponds to the accepted standards in the medium formed is different expressiveness and beauty.
Course of speech is aimed at the formation and development of a future specialist — member of professional communication of complex communicative competence in the native language, which is a combination of knowledge, skills, abilities, personality initiatives necessary to establish interpersonal contact in the socio-cultural and professional (educational, scientific, manufacturing, etc.) spheres and situations of human activity.
Culture of speech includes three aspects: the normative; communicative; ethical. The normative aspect of speech is one of the most important but not the only one. It presupposes knowledge of literary norms and the ability to apply them in a speech. However, the effectiveness of communication is not always achieved a correct speech. It is important to take into account, to whom is addressed the text, taking into account the knowledge and interests of the recipient. Language has a rich arsenal of tools allows you to find the right words to explain the fact to anyone. Among the linguistic resources necessary to select those that most effectively fulfills its communication objectives.
Among the linguistic resources it’s necessary to select those that most effectively fulfill its communication objectives. Skills selection of such funds constitutes the communicative aspect of speech.
Compliance with codes of conduct, respect for the participants of the dialogue, kindness, tact and sensitivity make the ethics of communication.
Ethical standards are a necessary part of speech, and in turn, is an important part of the human culture. «So, the culture of speech — it is a choice and an organization of language means that in a certain situation of communication in compliance with modern standards of language and ethics of communication allow for the greatest effect in achieving communicative tasks» — defines the concept of speech known contemporary linguist. (4, p. 46)
The term culture of speech has many meanings. Among its main values are the following: «Culture speech — a combination of knowledge, skills and abilities, providing the author of speech which not labored construction of speech utterances for the optimal solution of problems of communication. Culture of speech — a set of system properties and qualities of speech, speaking about its perfection; Culture of speech — is the area of linguistic knowledge about the system of communicative qualities of speech» (5, p. 15).
Culture of speech as a special scientific discipline began to emerge in the 20s of the 20th century thanks to the work V. I. Chernyshov, L. V. Scherby, G. O. Vinokur.
Among the most important works of the time should be called work G. O. Vinokur «Language Culture» (1929), A. Gornfeld «New words and old words» (1922), A. M. Selischev “Language of revolutionary era.)” (1928). These works have been devoted to the study of the factors leading to the destruction of the norms of the literary language, the identification and description of the areas of the language system, the most sensitive to disruption of the literary norms and methods of literacy, the dissemination of knowledge about the language, fostering respect for the right of speech.
Culture of speech is investigated in several sections of linguistics. Functional style studies features of speech norms in connection with the various functional styles of language, possession of styles, stylistic changes in language and speech.
The theory of speech acts studies the speech acts of the speaker and the listener, and the rules of effective dialogue and monologue preparation.
Linguistic pragmatics studies the target participants of communication and methods of achieving them, the relationship of man to his own and other people's speech.
Text Linguistics deals with the rules of construction of the whole text and the role of text-to-human communication, structural and stylistic features of texts.
Sociolinguistics explores the linguistic situation in the society, the influence of social factors on the culture of speech and culture of speech on public life.
The field of scientific and practical research of speech includes an explanation of the existence of linguistic norms and speech errors, and to develop recommendations for strengthening and overcome speech deficiencies. Therefore, the problem of speech covers both monographs addressed to linguists as well as in educational and practical guide, intended for the general reader. This practical advice based on the theoretical elaboration of the problems of speech and theoretical conclusions — on the knowledge of the speech practices of society.
Since social life is not in place, the professionals of speech is required to constantly monitor the ongoing social and linguistic processes and quickly take into account the problem of verbal interaction of people in their recommendations. Therefore, the work of researchers in the field of speech combines the accumulation of objective data on the state of speech culture of the society, the explanation of the data using the latest linguistic methods and the development of teaching methods and standards of speech skills to communicate effectively the broad of social layers. (2, p. 68)
This work is based on the systematic updating of evidence and methodological tools that makes the culture of speech and constantly updated scientific and practical research.
In order to understand the ways and means of self-development of speech culture, you need a clear understanding of the content and scope of the concepts of the discipline.
The central concept of this discipline is the concept of language. Language — «naturally occurring in the human society and developing system clothed in sound form of the iconic pieces that can express the totality of the concepts and thoughts of a person and intended primarily for communication purposes»(1, p. 652).
The ability relating sound and meaning are the main characteristics of the language. Language in the same time — a system of signs, replacement items and of speech and a set of values, concentrated in itself the spiritual experience of the people.
Since language is closely related to the concept of speech. Speech — it is «specific speaking, flowing through time and clothed in a sound (including internal pronunciation of) or in writing under the speech is commonly understood as a process of speaking itself, and the result of this process, i.e., speech and activity, and voice work, recorded by memory or by letter " (1, p. 417).
This perceptible, concrete and unique, intentional and directed towards a specific purpose, it is due to the situation, is subjective and arbitrary. The speech in language functions are manifested in various combinations with the predominance of one of them.
Communication between people is a social and psychological interaction and information transmission channel. Therefore, in the textbooks of speech communication culture, the term is used. Communication — an interaction between people, information exchange process, a process that supports the functioning of society and interpersonal relations. Communication consists of communicative acts involving communicants (the author and the message, the recipient), generating utterances (texts) and interpreting them. The communication process begins and the speaker's plan aims to understand the statements by the addressee.
The result of a speech activity of speaker is text. Text — is the finished product of the speech (written or oral), which are the basic properties of wholeness and connectedness. The validity of the text is in conformity with the requirements of external connectivity, internal meaningfulness, the timely perception of the necessary conditions for communication. Correct perception of the text is provided not only linguistic units and their connections, but also necessary general background knowledge.
The important thing is the concept of speech quality. Speech quality is the properties of speech to ensure the effectiveness of communication and culture characterizing level of the speaker’s speech.
The philology distinguish speech culture of personality; speech culture of the society.
Speech culture of the personality is individual. It depends on erudition in the field of speech and culture of the society is the ability to use this erudition. Speech culture identity borrows the voice of the culture of the society, but at the same time it is wider than speech culture of the society. The correct use of language requires its own sense of style, a true and sufficiently developed taste.
Speech culture of the society has the selection, collection and storage of the best examples of speech activity, the formation of literary classics and adherence to the norms of the literary language. This understanding of speech culture adheres Yu.V. Rozhdestvensky (3, p.14)
Of course, as part of the science the speech culture is considered not only as examples of the high level of knowledge of literary norms and rules of communication, but also as violations of the rules in the voice of the individual activities and speech practice in society.
Successful communication between people requires communicative competence of the participants of such communication. Communicative competence is a combination of knowledge, skills and adequate reflection of reality perception in a variety of communication situations.
The basic concepts of the culture of speech are also such things as a literary language, language standards, style, locale, language personality, types and forms of speech, speech etiquette.
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