There are number of modern activities, visual aids, instructions, methods, components and concerns thanks to developing of the science, various range of skills in the language, according to the how to teach for teachers and how to learn for learners. Among types of tests, additionally, tests of reading can include kind of forms and reading activities to concern and evaluate reading comprehension, reading speed, scanning and skimming techniques, or reading abilities of the students. Advanced and more specialized applications include translation, reading aloud, and reading literature. [1, 76] In education spheres, actually, in schools the main goal of reading evaluation is reading comprehension (understanding clearly). It can be important and main emphasis to discuss how to test sentence comprehension and passage comprehension.
In the beginning of teaching reading, informal techniques of identifying the beginner’s ability on their degree are recommended such as exercises and individual practice. The activity «word attack» usually is vital on the beginning level. Now we can see that the student’s differences of voice between various combinations of letters in English words. For this, «Same different» technique is used as a reading exercise in language learning.
− see-sea and etc.
There are advantages of limited-response:
− quite easy to construct and score;
− they require the recognition of letters and very simple task for beginners.
And also it has limitations of limited-response:
− It can’t include actual reading;
− its technique decreases reading speed. [1, 79]
Additionally, evaluate the learner’s sentence comprehension (understanding clearly the sentences while reading) is very important to test.
Testing sentence comprehension.
In order to test reading comprehension there is no necessity but for all beginners will have difficulty understanding a sentence. Sentence comprehension can improve essay comprehension and it is good for beginner students. Actually, to understand and use the phrasal words and verbs are really difficult at first, for ex: «let’s skip it» it means let’s talk another one or let’s change our chatting about it, «keep off the grass» – it means don’t walk on the grass and etc. In order to design some activities for students we can use following aids:
- Picture techniques- it is the most efficient way to understand and keep in mind and use phrases and sentences which seem to difficult the students or beginners in real life.
- Phrase and sentence cues-one of the most widely-used form of sentence comprehension is «true-false» activities. While using that kind of tasks the students will have a chance to choose and remember the rules or notes. For example:
Which is correct or not?
- Look! that man over there wears\is wearing the same sweater as you.
- I was not very busy. I did not have \was not having much to do.
There are also signs, which is given as abbreviations or pictures on the roads or other places and locations to identify the meaning of the sentences. For ex:
Sign – «THE BLACKFRIES» – Location-THEATRE
Sign – «THE NIJO» – Location-PALACE
Additionally, the paraphrase is good way to check for more exact or detailed comprehension of phrases and sentences. For this activity the students can use the synonyms, antonyms or another forms of making sentences on the specialized topic. It can improve comprehension on sentences while reading the book or topic.
The table-given indicates that the changing of social rules in Uzbekistan from 2000 till 2017. If we paraphrase it, we can describe like that: the pie-chart shows increasingly changing of some social rules in Uzbekistan between 2000 and 2017.
There are 2 main cautions to be carefully to keep in mind when preparing sentence and phrase items.
1) don’t make the answer rely on knowledge of facts that have nothing to do with language skill.
2) unless you are testing cultural facts, don’t make the answer depend on a knowledge of a specific culture.
In order to make successful lesson or class for beginners or students to learn very deeply the target language, Instruction preparing is so important to organize safe-environment to catch knowledge on reading. For example:
Instructions can be sentences, topics, pictures, paraphrases, answers and questions or like that.
Example for multiple choice activity:
- Natural disasters can include…
d) all of them.
Example for pictures which are depend on the topic or lesson.
In testing passage comprehension we can learn and see that how common signs could be used, how to paraphrase the sentences. Furthermore, reading tests, selecting context is the most vital tool to this skill. While selecting the contexts the teacher should follow and pays attention these rules:
- The author of the book should be given on the book
- Where and when it was published
- Are there any kind of enough or further information in the book or not?
- While searching new material on the internet use social networks and analyze each detail or evidence given on the topic.
- While searching new content on the internet try to know perfectly the target language which you want to take information belong to it, because in the language there are type of synonyms of the word.
- Collect practical reading items, useful, interesting advertisements, articles, letters, applications, statements, notes, and etc.
Because good-selected material can give emotional and exotic interests to the learner and make enjoyable the lesson process.
As a question technique for beginners, some useful approaches for testing are admitted. These are: «true-false» items, «question technique» and «matching technique». Additionally, we can add another item which is «filling the gaps».
Because while reading topic especially in lectures this task is very effective to catch knowledge, to know phrasal words, to use match words in the sentences and after lesson teacher can check their comprehension or mental ability on the skill.
Question techniques for more advanced levels.
- Standard Multiple Choice. The questions can be asked on very short passages of 35 to 75words. But it can be long and longer passages actually it is belong to student’s general reading ability. Because to conclude only one student’s ability is not true way. Teacher should consider all of student’s ability on the skill. A few of them can be answered in one period. And they can be used when all your students have the same classes in school. For example: we can choose one topic. It’s about...
For this activity, students can do kind of tasks:
- They can do skimming and scanning on the topic;
- They can select suitable title for the topic;
- They can make true-false tasks on the topic;
- They can paraphrase the sentences;
- They can recognize difficult phrases and word.;
- They give true answers to the questions and etc.
- Multiple-Choice Close. Some teachers suggest that close tests are way to reading comprehension. Because several sentences are needed to provide the build-up of information that can point to what is required in a particular slot. Here is the first part of a multiple-choice cloze. The correct underlined word is to be circled.
Is your home safe? Do it/you/them/each protect your family?
Are you safe of/for/with/from fire or falling?
In conclusion, reading tests, comprehension, reading speed is the most general problem for each learner who wants to learn the target language. So that in order to evaluate the children correctly is very essential for teachers. Furthermore, kind of tests or exercises like: true-false, multiple-choice, filling the gaps, same-different techniques and activities can help to develop their message and sentence comprehension while reading process. Besides, translation, reading kind literature, revision tasks play big role for learners to develop reading skill.
- Harold S. Madsen. «Techniques in testing». 1983. Oxford university press.
- Mark Nettle and Diana Hopkins. «Developing Grammar in Context». Cambridge University Press.
- Zarifa Uskinova. English grammar in practice. Namangan nashriyoti. 2016.
- www.UC Browser.google.