At present, there is a sharp increase in interest in the problems of the ethno psycholinguistic level, which regards language as a reflection of sociocultural reality, which accordingly makes it necessary to study the integral picture of the world present in the cultural tradition of both its own and the studied people.
Modern answers to the questions, what to teach and how to teach, the methodology and the didactics of teaching foreign languages is looking for, based on studies analyzing the relationship of language, speech and thought, thinking and communication, communicative and cognitive in speech, etc.
The principle of variability, proclaimed in Russian education, makes it possible for secondary schools to choose any model of the pedagogical process, including author's. In these conditions, the teacher of a foreign language is given a certain freedom of creativity, freedom to choose innovative models and technologies of instruction, without which the modern educational process is inconceivable.
Innovative phenomena that give rise to the specifics of the teacher's activity in modern conditions, cause the transition from the knowledge paradigm of the pedagogical process to the individual, from the «communicators» — to the interactive methods of teaching.
All of the above, as well as the need to find ways to intensify the use of innovative teaching methods in the teaching of the English language at school, in the face of the ever-changing realities of modern society and its active development, determine the urgency of the work and determine the choice of its topic.
The problem of teaching foreign languages in school today certainly requires a systematic analysis of speech-activity from psycholinguistic, linguistic, and psychological positions.
Traditional methods of teaching a foreign language involve the assimilation of knowledge in artificial situations, so that a future graduate does not see the connection of the subject under study with his future professional activity. The most effective means of developing the thinking of future graduates is simulation modeling. Such an approach in teaching provides imitation of elements of professional activity, its typical and essential features. Its use in foreign language classes makes it possible to form skills and communication skills; Develops the habit of self-control, contributes to the real preparation of schoolchildren for forthcoming activities and life in society as a whole; Helps to make foreign language lessons more lively, interesting, meaningful, give the opportunity for schoolchildren to express their own opinions more often, express their feelings, thoughts, assessments, ie. To think in a foreign language.
The following can be used as methods to improve the professional orientation of studying a foreign language: communication — dialogue about professional information read in a foreign language, analysis of social and professional situations, fulfillment of creative assignments with profile content by schoolchildren, game situations, role plays, quizzes.
The practice of applying innovative technologies to improve the professional orientation of studying a foreign language at school, as practice shows, is most noticeable when they are used in the system of studies, providing mastering a whole complex of skills, laying the effective basis for its effective profiling in life.
Innovative trends in teaching a foreign language to schoolchildren.
Let us turn to the consideration of modern, innovative methods of teaching a foreign language aimed at more effective personal development and adaptation (both social and professional) within the framework of today's rapidly changing society.
The modern multilateral method originates from the so-called «Cleveland Plan», developed in 1920. Its main principles are:
Foreign language can not be memorized through mechanical memorization, because Is created individually by everyone. Thus, training exercises should be minimized in favor of the spontaneous speech of trainees.
Language is culture; Cultural knowledge is transferred in the process of teaching the language through authentic language materials.
Each lesson should be structured around a single focus, the trainees in one lesson should recognize one isolated unit of the content of the training.
Grammar, like a dictionary, is taught by measured portions in a strict logical sequence: each subsequent lesson should increase the already available stock.
All four types of speech activity should be present simultaneously in the learning process. The training material is presented by long dialogues with subsequent exercises in the question-answer form.
As a rule, the texts offered for studying this method give a good idea of the culture of the country of the studied language. However, the role of the teacher limits the possibility of creative use of the learned material by trainees in situations of direct communication with each other.
The method of complete physical reaction.
This method is based on two basic assumptions. First, on the fact that the skills of perception of foreign oral speech must precede the development of all other skills, as happens in young children.
Secondly, the language of the lesson is usually limited to concepts that describe the situation «here and now» and easily explained examples in the language being studied. Trainees should never be forced to speak until they themselves feel that they are ready for it. The method is not intended for teaching reading and writing, and also the language, to the extent that it is learned in teaching this method, is not a natural language of everyday communication.
The natural method.
The aim of the training is to achieve an intermediate level of knowledge of a foreign language among students. The teacher never pays attention to errors in speech, as it is believed that this can slow the development of speech skills. The early productive period begins with the moment when the passive vocabulary of students reaches about 500 vocabulary units.
From the point of view of pedagogy, the main components of the innovative approach to learning are the activity approach. This approach is based on the idea that the functioning and development of the personality, as well as the interpersonal relations of students, are mediated by the goals, content and tasks of socially significant activity.
It is based on the fact that the student increasingly collides in real life with the need to solve problem situations. This method is aimed at the organization of development, self-organization, self-development of the individual. The basic principle is that the learner is the creator of his knowledge. Active learning is, of course, a priority at the present stage of teaching a foreign language. After all, effective management of educational and cognitive activity is possible only when it is based on active mental activity of students.
Teaching a foreign language at school using innovative technologies involves the introduction of a number of psychological approaches, such as: cognitive, positive, emotional, motivational, optimistic, technological. All these approaches are addressed to the personality of the student.
Teaching a foreign language using the Internet.
The introduction of information and communication technologies in the learning process began not so long ago. The Internet develops social and psychological qualities of students: their self-confidence and their ability to work in a team; Creates a learning-friendly atmosphere, acting as a means of an interactive approach.
However, the pace of its spread is incredibly rapid. The use of Internet technologies in foreign language classes is an effective factor for developing the motivation of trainees. In most cases, guys like to work with a computer. Since classes take place in an informal setting, schoolchildren are given freedom of action, and some of them can «flash» their knowledge in the field of ICT.
The prospects for using Internet technologies today are quite wide. It can be:
Correspondence with residents of English-speaking countries via e-mail;
Participation in international Internet conferences, seminars and other network projects of this kind;
Creation and placement of websites and presentations in the network — they can be created jointly by the teacher and the trainee. In addition, it is possible to exchange presentations between teachers from different countries.
As the pedagogical experience shows, the work on creation of Internet resources is of interest to students with their novelty, relevance, and creativity. The organization of the cognitive activity of students in small groups makes it possible to show their activity to each child.
However, it should be noted that information technology, Internet technologies — this is by no means a panacea for increasing the motivation and independence of students in the process of learning a foreign language in the cognitive process. To achieve maximum effect, it is necessary to use a wide range of innovative, including, of course, various media education technologies in the learning process.
The language portfolio as one of the promising means of teaching a foreign language at school.
The language portfolio in modern conditions is defined as a package of working materials that represent one or another experience / result of the learner's learning activity in mastering a foreign language. Such a package / set of materials enables the student and the teacher to analyze and evaluate the amount of academic work and the range of the student's achievements in the study of language and foreign culture, based on the result of the training activities presented in the language portfolio.
For the first time, the idea of creating a self-assessment tool for owning a foreign language appeared in Switzerland more than 10 years ago. At present, the Council of Europe has established the Accreditation Committee, where the projects of language portfolios are being sent, which are further evaluated and discussed, as well as accreditation.
The objectives and forms of work with the language portfolio can be different.
In terms of its conceptual nature, the language portfolio is a flexible educational tool that can be adapted to almost any learning situation. One of the important advantages of the language portfolio, in comparison, in particular, with «one-time» texts, is the opportunity for the student to independently track his dynamics of the level of knowledge of the language being studied for a certain time. In a certain situation, the work of a student with a language portfolio can be correlated with the compilation of his personal (individual) educational tool. This educational tool creates a development situation and provides real involvement in the course of the learning process.
The task of developing, improving, optimizing the methods of teaching foreign languages has always been one of the topical problems of Russian education. The conducted research of pedagogical work in this field showed that teaching foreign languages in school is impossible today without an innovative component. In the light of modern requirements to the goals of teaching a foreign language, the status of both the trainee and the teacher changes from the «teacher-student» scheme to the technology of personality-oriented learning in close cooperation.
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