Theoretical aspects of the use of quality principles in production | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Авторы: , ,

Рубрика: Экономика и управление

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №10 (144) март 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 10.03.2017

Статья просмотрена: 27 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Гудкова С. А., Бикина Е. А., Гусарова А. Д. Theoretical aspects of the use of quality principles in production // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №10. — С. 218-221. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/144/40241/ (дата обращения: 26.09.2018).



One of the factors of competitiveness of enterprises and organizations — is the availability of cost management system products and services and the costs of their production. An important part in solving this problem takes the decision quality control problems of products and services. Quality management is a relatively young branch of management science. Today, quality control methods and means of classification have not yet been developed.

The choice of methods and means to control the quality of products and services must meet the particularly critical problems of the enterprise or organization, so you need a detailed description of all possible methods and tools for each link quality management continuous cycle, for all stages of the product lifecycle or service, all kinds of quality control facilities of any quality management level, etc.

Offers Advanced classification techniques and quality management tools can be used to identify them in solving quality problems at the plant and the required modeling sets, depending on the capabilities of the enterprise or organization.

The manual describes in detail the methods and means of actively developing directions of management theory — Management of logistics, from which to a large extent dependent and quality products and services and the reduction of costs and losses.

Developing adequate to the challenges and opportunities of the enterprise, system models of methods and tools is a new approach to ensure and improve the quality of products and services.

Quality — a set of characteristics of the object (product, service, process, system, organization or individual) related to its ability to meet due or alleged properties.

Quality Management — an integrated continuous production management cycle of planning, implementation, checking and correcting processes to correct discovered at any stage of the quality indicators of the deviation (PC) production of the product according to the planned values. [1]

The core concept of quality assurance is that the consumer should receive a valid, only products that meet the standards. The beginning of Quality Management is considered to be 1950, when Japan developed a program of quality management at all levels, thus there was a transition from the concept of control to the concept of quality management. For the first time total quality management system was introduced in Japan, W. Edwards Deming, who, recognizing the existence of abnormalities, called for the tracing of «unnatural deviations» and determine their causes. Today all know the famous «Deming Cycle» or PDCA cycle (Figure 1).

Fig. 1. Deming Cycle

For the manufacturer has the value of all the non-defective product and for the consumer have the same value, only those properties that meet his expectations.

There are three basic relationships between value and cost:

– Between the value and the cost of the product to the consumer (Q);

– Between the value and cost of production for the manufacturer (Qp);

– Between the value for the consumer and the manufacturer, defining the competitiveness of production (K).

Mandatory requirements for the quality of the products included in the government of the Russian Federation standards — standards for the products:

a) standards of general technical conditions, which should contain general requirements for the same product group;

b) standard specifications, which should contain requirements for specific products.

The most important tasks of quality management is to ensure the stable quality of products, identify possible areas of improvement, data analysis of the results of operation, assessment of the level of product quality in comparison with their baseline. The assessment can be carried differentiated (for a single quality indicators), integrated (according to the total useful effect) and mixed (in a single and comprehensive quality indicators) techniques. [2]

The concept of total quality management is the «performance quality at the lowest cost to the consumer» as opposed to the previously existing «Quality of performance at the lowest cost for the company». It is implemented by means of total quality management (TQM — Total quality management), the principles of which are:

– Customer focus;

– Management leadership;

– Involvement of all employees in the work to improve the quality;

– A process approach;

– systems approach;

– Continuous improvement;

– The application of decisions based on facts; mutually beneficial supplier relationships.

TQM defines the requirements of relationships between suppliers and production as the domestic consumer in the parameters values and the value of the delivered product. Domestic consumers through regular survey should be satisfied with the quality of incoming materials and the quality of the technology and equipment to provide a process outputs — value and the value of the finished product satisfy the external customers. [3]

As the manufacture of the product at various stages of the production process, increasing its manufacturing costs, and accordingly it increases the cost and value added. The main objective of the process — adding value at the lowest cost to each transaction. When the defective products of consumer value is added and decreases due to laying in the price of the finished product of the future costs of recycling of defective products. Thus, the quality of the process is equal to the quality of its results, and therefore the costs of the process should be less than or equal to the added value of the product for the consumer.

Manage process quality — the means to manage its effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility.

Efficiency — the degree of conformity of the finished product design.

Efficiency characterizes the quality of resources and is defined as the ratio of output to input resources. [4]

Flexibility (flexibility, adaptability) — adaptability to changing conditions due to external and internal causes, which is achieved by optimizing the response to market changes.

Joint participation and interest in the continuous improvement of the quality of all the employees, responsibility and confidence in the quality of incoming materials allows to exclude the input control, thereby reducing the cost of the product and ultimately providing its high value and minimal cost.

Practice shows that the uses of qualified TQM methods provide a huge competitive advantage to organizations.

Product quality problem is not a new problem. At present, sufficient experience on this issue, held numerous basic research. So what is the problem of the quality of products?

Firstly, it is a problem ensures product quality. The second is the problem of improving the quality of products. Thirdly, it is a problem of the system approach that allows secure and improve the quality of products according to the specific objective conditions prevailing, in which the company operates. Solution product quality problems should be based on knowledge of the concepts and definitions. Product quality is a set of application properties, which reflect the degree of novelty that determine its ability to meet specific or perceived needs in the system of industrial relations. [5]

Any products manufactured by enterprises have many properties. These properties are known thanks to the development of science and make it possible to distinguish one product from another. The aim is to give the products the properties, which are determined by the specific, needs, allow the use of products with minimal costs. Numerous properties of the product are often not equal and are not always necessary in terms of consumption of these products. Necessary properties that characterize the quality of the product are recorded in standard documents: standards and technical conditions. In this sense, the quality of the product has a unique definition. It characterizes the product compliance with quality requirements of normative documents.

Any deviation from the requirements of regulatory documents is called a defect. Products having a defect, called a defect. Defects are detected at the stage of manufacturing products based on functional control. Defect is detected after the completion of a work cycle at the stage of acceptance inspection.

Depending on the value, determined by the degree of influence on the quality of products, all defects are divided into minor, significant and critical. Minor defects insignificantly affect the use of the product for its intended purpose. Significant defects significantly affect the use of the product for its intended purpose, but are not critical. Critical defect preclude the use of the products for their intended purpose, leading to a crash in the use of the product.

All defects are divided into explicit and implicit, correctable and uncorrectable. Explicit defects detected current methods and means of control. Those defects that are not detected current methods and means of verification, called hidden. [3]

Defects that are technically and economically feasible to fix, called correctable, while those that can’t be correct technically and economically unfeasible, called incorrigible. Products with significant and critical incorrigible defects deemed to be finally discarded and recyclable. The theoretical position does not imply low and high quality products.

Here we are talking about the level of product quality, determined by the relative values of the output characteristic achieved with a base value of properties taken as a reference. In practice, as a basis accepted requirements of regulatory documents. Thus, products used with insignificant defects, the quality level are below unity. If a company has created the objective conditions for the production of output above the requirements of regulatory documents and it encourages a real need for such products have quality level higher than unity.

The above facts indicate bifurcation product quality problems to ensure the problem and improve (or increase) the level of its quality.

From the point of view of product quality problem is solved through the implementation of complex organizational, technical and economic measures aimed at achieving a set of regulatory documentation requirements.

From the standpoint of improvement (increase) quality level of product quality problem involves the implementation of the above measures aimed at achieving the properties of the product above the requirements of regulatory documents. Quality assurance is very expensive. The main share of quality costs until recently determined physical labor. Today, however, a high proportion of intellectual work. The quality problem can’t be solved without the participation of scientists, engineers and managers. [5]

The head of each department shall determine a list of the required procedures/work instructions with the recommendations concerning the responsibility for the activities described in the procedure/work instruction. The list is submitted to the quality manager for consideration. The quality manager monitors the list of the required and existing procedures/work instructions.

A proposal to amend the procedure/work instruction might be put forward for consideration by any user (in consultation with the head of department). The reason for the revision of a procedure can also be a result of the internal/external audit. [2]

All procedures/ work instructions should always be reviewed for relevance by heads of departments once a year. If the process described by the procedure/ work instruction has not changed, and is up-to-date as of the date of review, and the procedure/ work instruction is executed in accordance with the ISO standards and the procedure for execution of documents, then it should not be reissued; on the front page of the currently approved version in the column ‘History of changes’, after consultation with the person responsible for the document (owner of the procedure/ work instruction), the head of department shall specify the date of the last check of the current procedure/ work instruction for relevance and puts his/her signature.

References:

1. He ways to improve the competitiveness of enterprises, Akhmadzhanow S. I., Sherstobitova A. A., Gudkova S. A. Theory and practice of modern science.2016. № 4 (10). С. 76–78.

2. Assessment of quality of training specialists of economic profile of foreign language information technology, Glukhova L. V., Gudkova S. A. Proceedings of the IRE RAO. 2008. No. 28. S. 103–105.

3. The quality management system in HR department, Gudkova S. A., Shazamova N. A. THE Methodology of evaluation and quality management information systems Glukhova L. V. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2008. No. 4. Pp. 174 to 181.

4. Methodological bases of quality management of training information specialists, Glukhova L. V. Proceedings of the Samara scientific center, Russian Academy of Sciences. 2006. P. 115.

5. Training of engineers — managers for quality management of information systems assembly plants, Glukhova L. V. Assembly in machine building, instrument making. 2007. No. 1. S. 21–24.

Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): TQM, IRE, ISO, PDCA, RAO, THE.


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