It is impossible to study the literature of one culture separate from the literature of the other cultures. Because the world literature is like a one whole body, which is developed under the influence of different large and small national literatures. In spite of the fact, that people live in different parts of the world, they always look forward to share their created spiritual wealth, they enjoy each other’s art and literary discoveries.
Literary and spiritual connections, influencing the world nations, including East and West, is an endless process. And the role of translation is great here. It establishes straight spiritual connection between the nations. It introduces «the soul» of one nationality to the other. Interest towards Eastern literature was born in the middle of the IXth century. That's why European scientists came to Bagdad, Kufa, Kurdoba, Damask, and Kofira to learn Arabic and they studied science in medrese.
They were the first interpreters who translated books from Arabik. Books of such great scientists as Muhammad Horazmiy, Abu Nasr Farabiy, Abu Rayhon Beruniy, Ibn Sino, Ahmad Fargoniy, Abu Mashar Balhiy, Al Kindiy, Abu Bakr ar Roziy, Ibn Rushd, Ulugbek, and others were studied in Spain, France, Italy, England. The books of Kalidasa and Firdavsi, Sadiy and Al-Maariy, Hofiz and Hayom, Rumiy and Jamiy, Bobur and Mirhond became famous throughout the world. And as a result the Eastern literature influenced the works of English writers and poets.
English scientist Sam Rassel said: «Middle Asia has interested Englishmen for many centuries. Samarkand's Golden Road was afavorite topic for English writer's poems and works. And it is still afavorite topic and theme».
Daniel Morli, Robert Chester, Machael Stott and others worked on interpreting and studying the books by Aristotle, and Ibn Rushd. Samarkand and Bukhara had been cultural centers of ancient Mavorounahr. Also it had been national trading centers. English travelers came to get valuable books from there.
As one American scientist S. Niering said: «The difference between the Asian and European cultures is that, the Asian culture is much older and is still influencing Europe».
In 1587, Shakespear's master Christopher Mario wrote a drama «The Great Tamer lane». It is considered as one of the first and great works of the English Renaissance. Mario used books of the European historians while writing his great drama.
There were told legends about Timur in West in XV-XVI centuries. In XVIth century, there was edited a book called «the Skiffs king — Tamer lane». He had the personality of a noble knight in those books.
In his book Mario described Timur as «blond haired, tall, broad shouldered, strong man». He wrote that «Timur was born to be a ruler». He created Timur's character as people's hero. I think that this drama could influence Shakespeare as well.
Edmund Castell (1606–1685) worked a lot on Eastern literature, he observed and wrote analyses on Ibn Sino's works, he wrote about the great writer's life and activities.
The first president of the «Asian society» William Johns (1746–1794) knew well the Eastern literature as well as he was a talented interpreter. He is one of those, who participated actively in introducing the eastern literature to England. He has translated the works of the Indian classic Kalidasa, the Indian eposes «Ramayana» and «Mahabharata». John offers to translate Nizomiys «Leyli and Mejnun», advising not to spoil any idea, not to leave any idea, not to leave or add anything.
While translating a poem, he used to do it in two options. First translation was a literal translation and poetic translation. Here is an example from the famous ghazal of Huja Hofiz «Aгap он тypки Шерозий…»:
«I would for the mole on her cheek
the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara»,
That rosy cheek that fily hand
Would sivd the port more delight
That all Bokhara's vaunted gold
Than all the gems of Samarkand».
At first he gave a literal translation to the main idea of the poem:
Унинг рухсоридан кора холига, Берар эдим Самарканду Бухорони.
In literal translation John gives an exact translation of every word, gives the Eastern color, all the qualities of the language are perfectly kept in the interpretation. And in the poetic translation William Johns takes into account the demands of the English language and the English poetry;
As a result of this, we see that the ideas of Hofiz, his feelings are mixed with the English spirit. It is done in order to interest the readers, to bring them to the closer understanding of great poet's soul.
William Johns also translated into English the Arabian collection of poems by Firdavsi and Saadiy called «MyajuiaKOT». Also he had translated «Tarihi Nidirshohiy», «Shakuntala», «Hitonadesha». He is the author of such works as «the Essay about the Eastern poetry», «Persian grammar» and others.
William Johns respected deeply the Eastern literature. That's what he wrote with sorrow: «Each educated European knows well Antic, Roman, and Greek literature but the rich Persian literature is almost unknown to the European reader...”William Johns denied the opinion of some people, who thought, that it was impossible to enjoy the Eastern literature; He said that the Eastern writers had their own style, spirit, that their books were good enough to read, translate and enjoy. According to his statements, «It is impossible to translate Firdause's heroic poems just like in the European style of «Illida».
As a president of «the Asian society», William Johns translated many works, he supported their education, worked on the edition of many journals and almanacs and etc. After that, there in England appeared many specialists like him, who studied the Eastern culture and the works. They also worked on translating and editing the works.
Each eastern writer had his own influence in England, there were such English scientists and interpreters who devoted their whole lives to the studies of Firdavsi, or Rumiy, Saadiy or Bobur.
Uzbek literature — does not consist of only Uzbek original works. The world's greatest national literatures were translated into Uzbek language. Nowadays, Uzbek people can read the works of people from all the 7 continents of the world. Uzbek reader loves equally the works of Alisher Navoi and Alexander Pushkin, Lutfiy and William Shakespeare, Zokirjon Furkat and Iogann Gete, Abdulla Kodiriy, and Onore de Balzak, Oybek and Vilis Latsis, Gafur Gulom and Nozim Hikmat.
- Larsen-Freeman, Diane and Anderson, Martin Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Никитин, Э.М. и др. Андрагогика: история и современность Текст. / Э. М. Никитин и др. М.: АПКиПРО, 2003.