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Рубрика: Филология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №9 (143) март 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 03.03.2017

Статья просмотрена: 86 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Турсунова Г. Н. Semantic analysis of idiomatic phrases containing the names of clothes in their components // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №9. — С. 381-383. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/143/38117/ (дата обращения: 21.05.2018).



The article studies semantic analysis of idioms with the component of clothes and their classification.

Key words: semantic opacity, pure, semi, literal, attitude of people, expressiveness, describe people, positive and negative qualities, social norms, mood

Данная статья исследует семантические анализы идиом с компонентами одежд и их классификации.

The most dominant feature of semantic classification of idioms is their composite unity which consists of semantically empty words. When such idioms occur, they should be taken symbolically or metaphorically because they create a totally different meaning than could appear at first glance. Moreover, such idioms also show a different degree of semantic opacity or, in other words, nonliteralness.

Fernandoindicates that a semantic classification depends on the degree of semantic isolation and the degree of opacity. [1, 9–10] For this reason she distinguishes three different groupsof idioms, which are the following: Pure, semi and literal idioms.

(1) Pure idioms — they are opaque to users of language with respect to all or some of the words that make them up. Formally such idioms are multiword expressions functioning as a single semantic unit whose meaning of individual words cannot be summed together to produce the meaning of the whole.

(2) Semi-idioms — the typical results of such idioms are partial non-literalness because one component generally preserves its direct meaning.

(3) Literal idioms — they can be interpreted on the basis of their parts; they are transparent. Components of such idioms are usually used in their direct meaning; although, such combination sometimes requires figurative sense. “Very often literal expressions are regarded as idioms only on the criteria of compositeness and fixity”.

All things considered, semantically idioms are divided into literal and non-literal, or grouped into three categories starting from “not-motivated” or pure in meaning (spill the beans), to semi in meaning (to save someone’s bacon) and to metaphorically transferred or literal (to rub a salt in a wound). For instance, in table 1 we can see some of the examples of the classification.

Table 1

Semantic classification of idiomatic phrases containing the names of clothes in their components

Pure idioms

Semi-idioms

Literal idioms

1

All hat, no cattle

(USA) When someone talks big, but cannot back it up, they are all hat, no cattle.('Big hat, no cattle' is also used.)

All talk and no trousers

(UK) Someone who is all talk and no trousers, talks about doing big, important things, but doesn't take any action.

All dressed up and nowhere to go

You're prepared for something that isn't going to happen.

2

All mouth and trousers

(UK) Someone who's all mouth and trousers talks or boasts a lot but doesn't deliver. 'All mouth and no trousers' is also used, though this is a corruption of the original.

Caught with your pants down

If you are caught with your pants down, you are exposed in an embarrassing situation. It can also mean that you were caught unprepared for a situation or an event.

Only the wearer knows where the shoe pinches

This means that it's hard to know how much someone else is suffering

3

Apron strings

A man who is tied to a woman's apron strings is excessively dependent on her, especially when it is his mother's apron strings.

First up, best dressed

First up, best dressed comes from big families; the first child awake wore the best clothes, so if you are first to do something, you are ahead or have an advantage. Similar to the early bird catches the worm. (First in, best dressed is also used.)

Put a sock in it

If someone tells you to put a sock in it, they are telling you to shut up.

4

At the drop of a hat

If you would do something at the drop of a hat, you'd do it immediately.

Fit like a glove

If something fits like a glove, it is suitable or the right size.

Put yourself in someone's shoes

If you put yourself in someone's shoes, you imagine what it is like to be in their position.

5

Belt and braces

(UK) Someone who wears belt and braces is very cautious and takes no risks.

Hand in glove

If people are hand in glove, they have an extremely close relationship.

Roll up your sleeves

If you roll up your sleeves, you get ready to start working hard.

6

Big girl's blouse

A person who is very weak or fussy is a big girl's blouse.

In another's shoes

It is difficult to know what another person's life is really like, so we don't know what it is like to be in someone's shoes.

Smarty pants

A smarty pants is someone who displays the intelligence in an annoying way.

7

Birthday suit

If you are in your birthday suit, you are naked.

Laugh up your sleeve

If you laugh up your sleeve, you laugh at someone secretly.

Take your hat off

If you say that you take your hat off to someone, you are showing your respect or admiration.

In semantic analysis we came across idioms meaning and their usage in speech. Idioms consist of at least two words which give different meaning from dictionary meanings, but in word form they make inseparable meaning. Mostly we use idioms instead of simple word in order to make the meaning more expressive. For example: We use Tough as old boots instead of tough.

We know every idiom originates under some circumstances in order to describe person’s action or state make more impressible. If it is used by people in everyday speech it becomes common, if not they lose its meaning, coloring. And we should note that some idioms are dependent on some period or some group, or some field. After some time it also loses its meaning. And some other colorful and impressible ones may substitute instead of old one. Some idioms may originate connecting with the attitude of some people. And by the time that person passed away. These idioms also begin to fade away and terminate. It is certainly expressive, when we use idioms to describe one's state. Besides expressiveness it will be understandable. Describing people's deals and state with the help of names of clothes is very interesting and emphasizing.

And, according to semantic analyses the idioms containing the names of clothes in their components that describe people [3] can be divided into two sub-groups:

  1. Idioms connected with positive and negative qualities, for example,

All hat, no cattle — (USA) When someone talks big, but cannot back it up, they are all hat, no cattle.('Big hat, no cattle' is also used.)

All mouth and trousers — (UK) Someone who's all mouth and trousers talks or boasts a lot but doesn't deliver. 'All mouth and no trousers' is also used, though this is a corruption of the original.

All talk and no trousers- (UK) Someone who is all talk and no trousers, talks about doing big, important things, but doesn't take any action.

Apron strings -A man who is tied to a woman's apron strings is excessively dependent on her, especially when it is his mother's apron strings.

Belt and braces — (UK) Someone who wears belt and braces is very cautious and takes no risks. [2]

Belt and suspenders — (USA) Someone who wears belt and suspenders is very cautious and takes no risks.

Big girl's blouse — A person who is very weak or fussy is a big girl's blouse.

Birthday suit- If you are in your birthday suit, you are naked.

Bluestocking- An intellectual woman is a bluestocking.

Bright as a button- A person who is as bright as a button is very intelligent or smart

Cute as a button — If someone's as cute as a button, they are very attractive

Grey suits- The men in grey suits are people who have a lot of power in business or politics, but aren't well-known or charismatic. [2]

  1. How people relate to the social norm, for example,

Boot is on the other foot — When the boot's on the other foot, a person who was in a position of weakness is now in a position of strength.

Dyed-in-the-wool — If someone is a dyed-in-the-wool supporter of a political party, etc, they support them totally, without any questions.

In someone's pocket- If a person is in someone's pocket, they are dependent, especially financially, on them.

Keep it under your hat — If you keep something under your hat, you keep it secret.

Kid gloves — If someone is handled with kid gloves, they are given special treatment and handled with great care.

Put it on the cuff- If you put something on the cuff, you will take it now and pay for it later.

Put on your thinking cap — If you put on your thinking cap, you think very hard about something.

Roll up your sleeves- If you roll up your sleeves, you get ready to start working hard.

Soft shoe- Speaking to someone or a speech given in a gentle or conciliatory way.

Take your hat off- If you say that you take your hat off to someone, you are showing your respect or admiration.

Walk a mile in my shoes- This idiom means that you should try to understand someone before criticising them

Whole cloth — (USA) If something is made out of whole cloth, it is a fabrication and not true. [2]

We have divided idioms describing feelings or mood into twosub — groups. They are positive and negative feelings, moods and states. For example:

Eat my hat — People say this when they don't believe that something is going to happen e. g. 'If he passes that exam, I'll eat my hat!'

Feather in your cap- A success or achievement that may help you in the future is a feather in your cap.

Physical feelings and states. For example,

Hot under the collar — If you're hot under the collar, you're feeling angry or bothered.

I'll eat my hat — You can say this when you are absolutely sure that you are right to let the other person know that there is no chance of your being wrong.

If the cap fits, wear it — This idiom means that if the description is correct, then it is describing the truth, often when someone is being criticised. ('If the shoe fits, wear it' is an alternative)

Laugh up your sleeve — If you laugh up your sleeve, you laugh at someone secretly.

Lay a glove on — If you lay a glove on someone, you strike a blow against them in an argument, dispute, etc. (Mostly used in the negative), etc. [2]

So an idiom may be treated as a natural manner of speaking to a native speaker of a language and idioms are integral part of language which makes our speech more colorful and authentically native.

References:

  1. Fernando, C. — Idioms and Idiomacity. London: Penguin Books, 1996. Print. Pp 9–10; 60–63
  2. http://www.useenglish.com/reference/idioms
  3. Michael McCarthy, Felicity O’Dell. English Vocabulary in Use.CambridgeUniversity Press, 1994.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): idioms, different groupsof idioms, literal idioms, semantic classification, semantically idioms, Pure idioms, meaning, studies semantic analysis, totally different meaning, apron strings, semantic opacity, single semantic unit, hat, direct meaning, people, birthday suit, big girl, kid gloves, semantic isolation, inseparable meaning.


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Семантическая прозрачность, чистый, пол, буквальный, Отношение людей, выразительность, Описывать людей, Положительные и отрицательные качества, социальные нормы, настроение

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