Personality Psychology - a separate branch of science, perhaps, the most mysterious, although it is the foundation of foundations. More Grandpa Freud said that the most fundamental underlying human life and destiny, is hidden even from himself in his own subconscious. To understand the issue of any life, any failure (or even successful) relationship, it is necessary first of all to look inside yourself and analyze your thoughts, desires and past experiences, to understand his second "I". Personality Psychology primarily teaches that knowing their identity, learning to see the problem in itself and independently to fix it, you will learn to understand and effectively communicate better with others. After all, despite the fact that all people are different in their character traits, habits and manners, basic manifestations, especially in stressful situations, all of us are the same. Thoroughly studying their behavioral responses, and along with those that have inherent, you will be well versed in dealing with other people, knowing what you can expect from anyone. One of the key indicators of personal development of the individual is the depth of their understanding of the conflict between morality and morality. Existence in society requires respect for moral norms. To what extent and in what situation they follow -reseat personality. In this deeply personal decision can not interfere with the hand. You can not decide who is more right: Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei. Conflicts between morality and ethics in the process of personal development (absence of conflicts means that the development of the individual are not) occur every day, and the difficulty of their solution have the difficulties of personal growth of the individual. Average organic personal attitudes in these conflicts - it is the primacy of ethics over morality. Therefore, "all morality worthless if it is not necessary for moral perfectionism". Infinity and here presents paradoxes and hopeless situation. For example: you see a man who is going to kill the child. You can stop, just killing the man. Your intervention or non-intervention in both cases is a violation of the commandment "Thou shalt not kill!" And, therefore, you will not escape the moral responsibility and the guilt. Another paradox in many ways presented in the literature (particularly in Dostoevsky in the parable of the "ticket to heaven" and "tears of a child"): imagine a situation where in order to save the lives of thousands of people need to sacrifice the life of one. Moral, along with science will begin to talk, and if society benefits from more than one of the benefits that can bring the marked thousand, and on the basis of these considerations, to solve the problem. From the point of view of morality issue so posed, is insoluble paradox, as one equivalent each of these thousands and at the same time all of them together, and not only to them but to all mankind. The problem should be reversed: one can sacrifice themselves to save others, but no one from the can not sacrifice them, for everyone - not just a part of something (the world, society, society, etc.), but the whole, the infinite value.
The relationship of morality - the central and most complicated problem of personality, representing the communications center of philosophy, psychology and pedagogy.
It remains pedagogy to reflect and experiment on how to solve, especially in these extremely difficult circumstances, when the powers that be are trying to impose a market economy in Russia. The market economy, capitalist society and all the attendant social forms and the corresponding morals absolutely immoral family and anti. Personality in general in a society always have to "go against the flow", and in our modern - it is also a condition of salvation "archetype" of the Russian soul, and consequently the nation. From a philosophical perspective it is clear that we must begin to raise the "top", with the forming of consciousness and a sense of infinity personal "I", and it is formed only in its relation with the divine "Thou". Perhaps we should use the experience of clerical pedagogy (eg, Thomist pedagogy begins with the suggestion to the child that he is infinite, God's favorite value).
In our public appearances, even well-known, the teachers talk about, because "life in modern civilization is changing so fast that the first task of pedagogy is to keep abreast of it, and try to raise the child so that he can easily adapt to it." We are talking about the child's adaptation to society, it is now customary to say, "socialization". If we are talking about personal development, it is necessary to raise the child so that he could "go against the flow" of modern civilization, and to withstand the enormous pressure of her seeking to destroy him as a man. Failure is not consistent with the phases of organic development, socialization killing ability in the child "go against the flow", creativity and the ability to develop as a person. His destiny, in this case, most likely, will become a social functionary. Personal development continues throughout a person's life, and at every moment, each of us, to some extent, and in some respects a person, namely, to the extent and in that regard, where it can act freely and responsibly.
With regard to the freedom of the individual, it is paradoxical that there are present at the same time seemingly rational consciousness incompatible absolute indeterminacy, arbitrariness and moral as if the arbitrary limits. In terms of external rational thought and action, this paradox is not allowed. His "withdrawal" can only take place in the super-rational innermost depths of the personal "I" adopted according to his conscience, moral decision. It removes restrictions, so as it turns out, that there are no moral boundaries, but there is a "vector" directed "up" to the AB, to God - the vector, which is also limitless. Thanks to this infinity, and, most importantly, the quality of infinity vector
Personality, as mentioned in philosophy and psychology, there are dozens of different definitions of identity. Meanwhile, non-professionals converge in their views about the person as a person safe, words and deeds which are not at odds with each other, which is itself free to decide what to do and is responsible for the results of their actions. Such a conception of the person associated with the beginning of Christianity. Based on this principle, we can say that the person - is an individual who has an infinite interior freedom in decision-making and action and at the same time an individual, no one shared, such as the infinite, to take over the moral responsibility for the results of these decisions and actions. Responsibility before God, peace, humanity, which can only go from the Center itself and expresses the voice of conscience. Thus, self-determined identity in infinite parameters. But the basic paradox of human existence lies in the fact that this man is a dual, infinite-finite creature. Being infinite in spirit, in contemplation, in thought, in feeling, in will, in the imagination, and so on. E., It is finite in body, ". space universe contains me and absorbs me as a point by thoughts I absorb it" (B. Pascal). "I have the body to perish in the dust, mind thunder command, I am the king, I am a slave, I am a worm, I am God." (G.Derzhavin). Man is mortal and is aware of the inevitability of his death. An infinite number of tragic collision generates this knowledge and the same number of self-deception, tricks, tricks, explanation and hope for a miracle of immortality was invented to get rid of this knowledge and comfort ourselves that life will go on in your offspring, and various images of salvation, the transmigration of souls etc.
Without discussing here the endless problems and contradictions generated by paradoxical man, pay attention to one thing, which consists in the fact that, as we know, the human individual - being public and can live and be formed as a person and a person only in communication with other people, making the infinite freedom of his "I" is inseparably connected with the same infinite responsibility to the "We". But this "we" is also represented by the dual "we" a limited group, social, "prefabricated" and "We" universal, personal, as a collection of "I", directly related to the centers, "catholic".
Therefore, the ethical consciousness of identity is also ambiguous, unconditional (morality in the proper sense of the word), and - a limited, due to cash, especially socio-historical conditions of existence (moral) - side.
Confrontation of morality, well illustrated by a well-known example - play LN Tolstoy's "Living Corpse"? How can you briefly define the content of the play? As the clash of morality. The hero of the play feels like to live by the rules of ethics of the society to which he belongs, does not allow conscience. Internal conflict reaches acuity, leading to suicide. Almost all deep literature and poetry lives in the sense of this conflict. Pasternak in "Safe Conduct" uses the term "immoral morality". Comparable in some respects morality and ethics.
Morality is always social and group character: family morality, the morality of any social group took shape, church morality, class morality, the morality of Party member, the moral kingpin, etc... Morality alone - common to all mankind. Morality is always prescribed by the individual from the outside of the social group in the form of course certain rules and regulations. Morality "grows" from the inside, along with the personal "I" of the individual, and often ahead of the formation of the personal "I" and apparently can not be expressed in the rules, but only (and not always) in the absolute, infinite principles. Morality can be used as a means of psychological pressure, intimidation and enslavement. It exists primarily for others. Morality can not be used, it is the use of relationships and exists primarily for themselves. Assessment of moral behavior comes from the social environment ("good will, get candy," and sometimes more tangible benefits). Assessment of morality is the conscience, it is always self-esteem (sometimes quite severe) and no degree can not depend on the views of the social environment. Sometimes the situation is such that an individual has to choose: whether to commit an act moral and gain the approval of the company or do the right thing, earning the contempt, not only contemporaries, but also descendants of sentences and maybe even death. Some heroes of works of Dostoevsky behave with narrow-minded point of view strangely compelled under the pressure of life-threatening circumstances commit an immoral act, they do not justify the power of coercive circumstances, and take the blame. This is - an indicator of the high degree of moral development: if your inner freedom and responsibility are endless, it can not exist.