Influence of mineral nutrition level on productivity pearl millet under conditions of irrigated rice systems | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Авторы: ,

Рубрика: Сельское хозяйство

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №6 (140) февраль 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 10.02.2017

Статья просмотрена: 14 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Нургалиев Н. Ш., Идирисова М. У. Influence of mineral nutrition level on productivity pearl millet under conditions of irrigated rice systems // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №6. — С. 176-178. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/140/39341/ (дата обращения: 17.11.2018).



This article presents the results of research culture millet carried out in order to develop the technology of its cultivation as a new forage crop for livestock development arid zone of Kazakhstan. The article presents data on the effect of fertilizers on seed germination and survival of plants, as well as the yield of green mass of millet on the background of irrigation. Set dose of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer and methods of making a pearl millet.

Key words: pearl millet, food, soil, fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus, yield

Climate change, degradation of soil and natural resources, desertification, water scarcity and droughts threaten the food security of Kazakhstan. One of the main problems for feed and crop production is global warming, resulting implications for crop production in the projected climate change is an increase aridity due to the increase in air temperature, the deterioration of heat and humidity of plants during their growing season when planting modern terms, decreasing the volume of snow by increasing winter temperatures, increasing soil salinity [1].

The rapid implementation of agricultural production in drought-tolerant, high-yield crops that can be grown throughout the country, especially in marginal and saline lands, is the most effective solution to the problem [2].

In terms of global warming should be introduced crops and varieties that are most effectively use carbon dioxide atmosphere — a culture with C4 photosynthesis type, and capable of forming an optimal vegetation on saline soils in arid conditions, where it is known as increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere [3].

This type of culture C4 photosynthesis is salt-tolerant and drought-resistant pearl millet

To solve the problem of efficient use of saline irrigated land, livestock provide succulent fodder and hay were studied elements of technology of cultivation of millet.

Conditions, materials and methods. Field studies conducted in the fields of the Kazakh Institute of Rice, who are in the middle area of the Kyzylorda region. The climate is sharply continental areas, the sum of temperatures above + 15°C is 3300°C. The amount of rainfall per year is 90–140 mm, most of which occurs in the autumn and spring.

Soil test sites — meadow-swamp, cultivated, irrigated rice systems typical soil. The content of total humus in the soil ranged between 0,7–0,9 %, which is a testament to its low fertility. The content of available phosphorus ranges from a low (12–15 mg/kg) to medium. Availability of soil potassium exchange also weak.Salinity ranging from mild to severe. The amount of water-soluble salts of the solid residue ranged from 1,35 to 1,58 %. The salinity — chloride-sulfate (Table 1).

Table 1

Characteristics of the soil experimental plot

Indicators

Unitofmeasurement

Substance

pH of salt extract

pH

7,7–7,9

Mobile phosphorus (P2O5) in Machigin

mg / kg

12–15

Movable potassium (K2O) on Machigin

mg / kg

120–140

Nitrates

mg / kg

13–15,3

Chlorides

%

0,041

Sulfates soluble in terms of sulfur

mg / kg

340–550

Humus

%

0,7–0,9

In the experiment, ripening varieties of African millet breeding Uzbek Hashaki1.

  1. Scheme of two-factor field experiment consists of four variants of fertilizers
  2. N0P0
  3. N60P60 — before sowing
  4. N120P60– before sowing
  5. N60P60 — before sowing + N60in tillering. And three options watering:

− One watering

− Two watering

− Three watering.

The studies were conducted by conventional methods certified. To carry out agrochemical analyzes of soil, plants and water, as the composition of the salts in aqueous extracts selected modern methods of chemical analysis.

Analysis and discussion of the results. Soil rice systems Kazakhstan Aral Sea region characterized by low fertility, so any crop cultivated in the region, good refuses to make nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers [4].

The number of plants per unit area, which is involved in the formation of the crop depends on the temperature and soil moisture. Therefore, the creation of favorable conditions for the emergence contributes to the further development of plants and increase productivity.

From seed germination depends completeness shoots optimal steblesty and ultimately the overall harvest.

Germination of seeds millet on options experiments, as well as survival or preservation of plants are listed in Table 2.

Table 2

Germination and survival of African plants millet depending on fertilizers and watering

Treatments

Germination,%

Survivalrate,%

One watering

N0P0

N60P60

N120P60

N60P60+ N60

56,7

58,0

59,3

58,8

90,8

94,3

95,5

95,7

Two watering

N0P0

N60P60

N120P60

N60P60+ N60

55,8

57,8

57,7

57,9

88,7

93,6

94,8

94,9

Three watering

N0P0

N60P60

N120P60

N60P60+ N60

56,0

58,3

58,5

58,4

87,6

92,7

93,6

94,7

As can be seen from the table, the field germination of seeds millet in the experiment ranged from 55,8–59,3 % depending on the doses and ratios of fertilizers. Before sowing was carried out one sowing irrigation, so during sowing on all versions of the soil moisture content was the same.

Adding nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer under pearl millet increased the seed germination by 2,1–2,4 % compared with the version without fertilizer.

Better provision of essential nutrients — nitrogen and phosphorus positively influences the safety of the plant, which is determined before the first mowing plant millet (Table 2).

At the same time keep the plant at the time of harvesting fertilized variants was higher by 4,9–7,1 %, than the version without fertilizer and was 94,7–95,7 %. Plant survival did not depend on the number of irrigations performed during the growing season.

Determination of the yield of green mass of plants millet showed that the highest yield was formed by use of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer (Table 3).

Table 3

Effect of mineral fertilizers on the yield of green mass millet

Treatments

Productivity, t / ha

One watering

N0P0

N60P60

N120P60

N60P60+ N60

20,8

28,7

31,3

34,5

Two watering

N0P0

N60P60

N120P60

N60P60+ N60

21,2

27,5

30,7

33,7

Three watering

N0P0

N60P60

N120P60

N60P60+ N60

20,0

27,0

30,2

32,9

НСР05 = 1,9 т/га

Pearl millet is a very kindly on the application of mineral fertilizers. In the context of saline soils of rice systems of watering was sufficient for maximum yield of green mass. Holding two and three irrigation has raised the productivity of millet, she remained at the level of yields obtained during a single irrigation.

On variant without fertilizers yield of green mass of African millet was 20,0–21,2 t/ha. In the second version, with pre-sowing making N60P60 yield increase amounted to 7,5 t/ha. Increasing the dose of nitrogen introduced before sowing on the background of P60 ensured yield increase of green mass to 10,1–10,7 t/ha.Maximum yield 31,9–34,5 t/ha in the experience obtained in the form N60P60 before planting and fertilizing N60 in tillering phase, while increase was 11,9–13,7 t/ha. Transfer of the insertion of nitrogen fertilizer in the phase of the most intense absorption element of African millet plants for maximum yield increase.

Conclusion. Research has shown that pearl millet is stable culture to soil salinity. Adding nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer increased seed germination by 2,1–2,4 %, the survival rate of plants to 4,9–7,1 %, thus obtaining a green mass yield increase in the range 7,5–13,7 t/ha. Discover the culture is characterized by high resistance to drought, in order to maximize the yield of green mass 30,2–34,5 t/ha was enough to hold one watering during the growing season.

References:

  1. Lie А. О. The current state of agriculture in Kazakhstan. International scientific and practical conference «Scientific and innovative basis for the development of rice growing in Kazakhstan and abroad» Kyzylorda, 2012. рр. 38–40.
  2. Akhanov ZH. U., Karazhan K. R. Optimizing the use of soil resources in the Aral Sea region of Kazakhstan under anthropogenic desertification / Scientific bases of reproduction of soil fertility, protection and sustainable use of soil Kazakhstan. Almaty, 2001. рр. 154–157.
  3. S. S. Medvedev. Plant Physiology Publishing St. Petersburg University, 2004. – 336 р.
  4. Dzhamantikov H. J. Involvement wastelands under cultivation in paddy soils under rice rotation fields in the region of Kazakhstan Priaralye. // Proc.: Agricultural science and agricultural production of Kazakhstan, Siberia and Mongolia. ХII International Scientific and Practical Conference. 16–17 April 2009 Shymkent, 2009. рр. 74–77.


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