Morphological way of term formation | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Филология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №6 (140) февраль 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 14.02.2017

Статья просмотрена: 28 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Магтымова М. А. Morphological way of term formation // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №6. — С. 483-484. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/140/35982/ (дата обращения: 19.06.2018).



At a morphological way of formation of terms the new term, it is created on the basis of one or several making bases with the help word-formation affixes. In English transport terminology allocates monolexeme and polilexeme terms (compound words, terminological Word combinations). Among monolexeme terms distinguish derivatives terms (for example, "affreightment", "seaworthiness", "observance", "commitment", "discount", and non-productive, with bases, basically, Anglo-Saxon to an origin (for example: "sail»; «ship"; "wharf;" trim ";" beacon " and etc.). High rate is marked at the terms formed at the help of a suffix - ег / - or, expressing value «the manufacturer given actions», for example: “forwarder”, “charterer”, “owner”, “freighter”, “adjuster”, “haulier”, “broker”, “consignor”, “integrator” and etc., «mechanisms, adaptations courts», for example:" spreader "," handler ","jumper","laker ","feeder", "lighter" etc. Among the suffixes used in the transport terminology, meet also: - able / - ible; - al; - ive; - ic; - at; - ment, for example: "permissible", "boatable", "floatable", "inflammable", "irrevocable», «returnable", "combinable", "hoistable", "non-negotiable", "non-reversible», «commercial», "exclusive", "automatic", "loyalty", "commodity", "affreightment", "consignment", "disbursement", "endorsement" and etc. Many transport terms representing accurate system and interaction of concepts entering into it, derivational nests form is generated on the basis of identity of a root morpheme:"transport" - "transporter" - "transportation" - "transportable" -"transportability"; "ship" - "shipper" - "shipping" - "shipment" - "-" transshipment "; "float -" floatable "-" floatation "-" floating "-" floatability". Productive prefixes which form verbs and nouns derivative of them with value of action are: re-; dis-; de - (for example: "redelivery", "reload", "return", "reposition", "release", actions expressing repetition; "displace", "dispose", "discharge", "dismantle". With value of moving, an arrangement; "decomposition", "decline», «decompress", "deduction", "departure", "deviation"; etc. in value deviations, deviations. The analyzed material confirms that suffixes and prefixes as a part of terminological units in system commercial transport operation remain in the categorical values rather are stable. Thus, system of terms, it is provided in this case also specialization of word-formation means. For word-formation elements fix the special narrow value, for example: value «action and process», «ability and Conditions » and etc. Owing to what, it is possible to tell precisely that lexica-morphological structure is capable to affect unambiguity of terms, since the more difficult the morphological structure of the term, there is more than it aspiration to unambiguity and accuracy. Monolexeme terms, they in many cases are characterized by special narrowness of the values; they are capable to concentrate and express the versatile relations between subjects and concepts. From the point of view D.S. Lotte, the occurrence reason of compound terms in aspiration to accuracy concept expressions. Researchers have paid attention that in various terminological systems compound terms arise on later stages of development of a science and technics, when new concepts for fuller and exact expression is demanded by updating and additions of components to existing terms already developed to the given stage of terminological system. Terminological word combinations are multicomponent and separately issued units. Quantity components in a word combination often depend on that, how many and what it is necessary to specify additional signs in a subject, the phenomenon for its allocation from a class or a number to it similar. Terminological word combinations with number of components are used more than two, for example: "non vessel operating common carrier», «bulk discharge open top container", "both to blame collision clause "port's transshipment handling complex" investigated terminological word combinations in the transport terminology can divide and by that to confirm the offered Bondarenko I.V.'s classification, on the word combinations formed:1) connection of two monolexeme terms ("hopper barge", "hopper car", "bulk carrier", "liner waybill", "loyalty contract"); 2) connection of the monolexeme terms with polilexeme ("shelter deck ship "," hatch cover ramp "," high cube reefer "," home trade ship", "point-to-point rate", "door-to-door technology". The most frequency structural types among the terminological word combinations there are models: «noun + noun» (drum handler, loyalty contract, log carrier); «adj.+noun» (inflatable dunnage, intermediate bulk carrier, multimodal transportation; outward cargo, negotiable, non-reversible lay-time, free practice).The smallergroup is constituted by the terms formed on models: noun/adj.+prep.+noun » (contract of affreightment, pier tohouse, pier to pier); «participle+noun» (loaded displacement, overloaded cargo, insulated container, freighted manifest).Terminological word combinations are characterized the semanticintegrity, is usual act as one part of sentence, and differ with special stability, absence of synonyms. It differs fromfree word combinations.

Scientists name a number of the reasons promoting development of process compositions. It, first of all, the extra linguistic reasons, when development of a science and techniques, occurrence of difficult concepts, difficult devices demand for the designation use of compound words, and also it is pure linguistic when process of word-formation dictates the simplified variants of creation of new terms by analogy and on the basis of structures already compound words available in language. O.D.Meshkov, for example, names next ways of formation terms-compound words which completely find the application into transport lexicon: 1) «on model by direct position bases which earlier were not in this or that interaction; it the way forms mainly such words which serve for nominations of the new phenomena of the validity, not соresponding in the semantic relation with earlier known », (steamguy, swapbody, redwoodscale, hatchway, bulkhead, deadweight, etc.);2) «by analogy with already existing compound words by substitution of one of components»(slothire, slotcharter, containership, trailership, timebar, timeshit, tugmaster,masterlease, purchaselease and etc.; 3)«by word combinations in compound words» (parcehanker — parcel tanker, pure саг carrier - purecarcarrier, dry dock - drydock, tween deck - tweendeck, paragraph ship - paragraphship and etc..In English transport terminology there are examples, when it was necessary to change a little for the reasonable reasons the semantic volume of already used term, leaving thus invariable its material form. Hence, in modern terminology it is possible to observe the following: constant change of a semantic volume of the term, occurrence of new values, refinement of its material expression, which is a direct consequence of the processes occurring in the world encircling us. On the other hand - aspiration of scientists in as much as possible exact delimitation of semantics of the term, in establishment of the signs most answering to the validity determined concept.

Logic correlation of terms, their interaction andinterdependence testify that the English transportterminology represents accurately expressed terminological system.The transport term in the given work is understood as a word or the word combination correlated with certain concept of a railroad trainsubject domain of commercial operation of transport. Nowadays industries of transport which studied by us develop and it extends intensively and renewed. All requirements developed and shown by scientific linguists to the ideal term, find the expression in standardization English transport terminology.Now a significant amount of words passes in transport terminology from common English language that is carried out by metaphorical carrying over (semantic way of word-formation). At consideration of a morphological way of formation of the transport terms it is possible to confirm that affixes word formation differs strict semantic specialization of word formation of morphemes. Composition and terminological word combinations — rather productive ways of term formation enriching English transport lexicon (a syntactic way). Specifying and modifying already known terms, they promote exact and full expression new, often more difficult concepts.

References:

  1. Meshkov O. D. Filling up dictionary structure of English language with a way of composition. –M., 1975.
  2. Reformatskiy A. A. Modern problems of Russian terminology.-M, — 1989.
  3. Akhmanova O. S. Linguistic Terminology. -Moscow Univ. Press,1977.
  4. Superanskaya A. V., Vasilyeva N. V., Podolsk N. V. General Terminology. Terminological activity. -M, 1993.
  5. Mattews P. H. Morphology. An Introduction to the theory of word structure. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.Press, 1979.
  6. Hill A. Introduction to Linguistic Structures. — New York, 1995.


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