Turkic household lexicon in medieval Persian dictionaries | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»


Рубрика: Филология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №5 (139) февраль 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 07.02.2017

Статья просмотрена: 13 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Оруджева Г. М. Turkic household lexicon in medieval Persian dictionaries // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №5. — С. 442-445. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/139/39192/ (дата обращения: 21.06.2018).

Household utensils contain things using in everyday life. The names given to these things shape an active and great part of the languages’ lexicon. İn the thesis “Turkic lexical loan words in several Caucasus languages system” the author Abdumnapovna [34] comes to a conclusion that the great part of names with concrete semantics contains household, cattle-breeding, dish, clothing, footclothing names. And author notes that this lexicon could be entered to the speech in the result of economic-agricultural and cultural relations.

Loan turkic household lexicon exsists in the language of most nations living in the neighbourhood with turkic nations. İt is showing the mutual relations of that nations, besides it demonstrates the antiquity of agriculture, cattle-breeding customs and richness of the household life of turks. Such words also exsist in persian. Peysikov [18, p. 48] writes about it: “There are too many turkic loan words in persian language’s household lexicon. The words like qashoq, boshqab, alak, dogme, otaq, toshak, qeychi, qaplame, qaymaq, chopog, chakme, ojag, otu include everyday using household predmets”.

Below we will see the examples from the most frequent turkic household utensils lexicon in medieval persian dictionaries:

Bel. Bel. بیل

[20, p. 339] بیل - ... آلتی باشد آهنی که باغبانان و امثال ایشان زمین بدان کنند...

(An iron tool used by gardeners and alike person for digging ground).

Bel has been noted in ancient turkic monuments initially with hill meaning, second meaning of the word is given as a mountain chain, passage and mountain pass. İn DLT we come across to a sentence بیلندن تت آنی (ani belinden tut) (hold her from the waist) and بیل قلدی (bel kıldı) (to overfeed someone). Radlov [29, p. 1608] says the main meaning of bel is waist, the second meaning is given as mountain chain, passage, mountain pass. İn DTS [27, p. 93] current word is being discussed like a waist. Abovementioned “bel aliş” combination is explained like to struggle for waist and generally, to struggle. İt seems while talking about to struggle they meant any kind of sport (for example, wrestling) and the opponents struggled for shooting each-other’s back (bel) on the ground.

So we see tutug has made from tut verb root had a wide range of extended meanings. This word can be used either as a noun, or as an adjective and fulfill both part of speechs’ functions. İn medieval persian dictionaries this word has been noted like بیل (bil). The main meaning is a body part. We don’t find any information in Farhang-e Rashidi and Burhan-e Gate about the etymology of the word.

During the centuries body parts were from main sources for creating many words, word combinations and toponyms. Some authors enumerate ağız (mouth), burun (nose), baş (head), bel (waist), boğaz (throat), boyun (neck), qaş (eyebrow) among these words. We think that the name of bel as a digging tool has given to it because the waist (bel) is mover body part in digging process. There is also a verb combination like بیل (bil, waist) + زدن (to bit, to strike) (bil zədən) using in this meaning. İn modern persian کمر (kəmər) is utilizing as a body part. For example, when we say -i have a waistache we use کمرم درد میکند (kamaram dard mikonad). But bel still preserves it’s exsistance in some commbinations. The second meaning of bel in persian dictionaries is spade. İn modern persian they use پارو (paru) in this meaning and it is also related to a body part (پا pa-leg).

[20, p. 471] تتق – چادر و پردۀ بزرگ را گویند

(Shelter and a big curtain).

Two meanings are given to tutug in dictionaries: captive and curtain, shelter. Both meanings are related to tutmaq, tutulmaq (capture, be caught) infinitive. İf captive means a person holding closed in somewhere, curtain means shelter textile covering the front of window or somewhere else. İn DLT has been written that tutug means hodoo, witchcraft and captive. Tutughlug yer combination also has captured in dictionary with the meaning of a place captured by gnomes, dangerous place. We also see other meanings of this word in medieval persian dictionaries not being noted in above mentioned sources. For example, in Farhang-e Rashidi 2 combinations have been recorded. سپهرگون تتق (totoqe sepehrqun) that means dark blue enameled goblet and تتق نیلی (totoqe nili) with the meaning of dark blue sky and dark cloud. Tutug has been also recorded in the dictionaries Farhang-e farsi and Farhang-e Amid and many extend meanings were given to it. İn Farhang-e farsi we read that tutuq means onion skin (something that covers (tutur) the onion) as well.

Qazan. Gazgan. قازقان

[25, p. 1060] قازقان و قزقان – دیگ باشد و این ترکیست

(Qazqan and qəzgan means cattle and its turkic origin).

We see several writing forms of gazan in medieval persian dictionaries: قازقان، قزقان، قزغان، کزغان, قازغان، خاژغان. İn Farhang-e Amid غازغان ,غزغان ,غزغن and in Farhang-e farsi قازغان, قازگانspellings also are given. In all reminded sources there is a note about turkic origin of this word. Gazghan is an arabized version of qazan. İn Farhang-e Rashidi [25, p. 1143] compiler says the writing form of this word with (qaf) is more correct.

This word is like qazan in modern azerbaijanian, kazan in turkish language. Kazan version also exsists in tatar and garagalpag. Burhan-e Gate [20, p. 669] writes discussing word comes from qazğan, in turkic language it is circular object made of wood and reeds, when they take a cauldron of stove they place it on it. The compiler also says today in many cities of İran such as Arak and Gilan qazğan is being used like cauldron and a big copper kettle and they cook plov (pilaff) in it. Clauson [12, p. 682-683] notes this word as a noun made from kaz verb. Etymological meaning has been noted only in Kashghari and Sanglakh. This meaning must be a very old one, as the word in this meanig recording in that dictionary seems to supply the transition to cauldron. The mentioned meaning has given in a kazğa:n yer combinition in dictionary and expresses a ground which is full of banks undermined by water, crevices and crakes. Clauson says Burhan-e Gate’s author translates qazan like a dig and dig also means digging, dug, to dig.

So we see the first meaning of qazan was related to digging-dug-to dig. Then in the result of assimilation this word was refered to a kitchen utensil. At first this was made of reeds and in the result of digging inside of wood or reeds this thing called this way.

Chakhmag. Çaxmaq. چخماخ

چخماخ - دو معنی دارد،اول کیسه باشد از پوست که مردم با خویشتن دارند از بهر شانه و غیر آن. دوم پرچه فولادیست [19, p. 63] کج کرده که بر سنگ زنند واز آن آتش بیرون آید (و چراغ افروزند)

(Has two meanings, first is a leather purse, people carry this purse next to theirselves for keeping comb and other things in it. Second meaning is a curved still piece, which they rub to stone and flame drops out there (and they lighten the lamp)).

The second explanation given to çaxmaq in Sihahu-l furs (a steel piece for lightening the fire) hits on as a main meaning in most treatises and they note it as a turkic word. The etymology of the word is evident from its structure. So, the word has been composed based on çax+maq model. Çax is a verb root and in most persian dictionaries we see not only çaxmaq word, but also this root like چخ (chax).

We see that چخ (çəx) has two meanings: sword, knife wrapped and war, trying, effort. İt seems that namely second meaning was the base of the word çaxnaşma (chakhnashma) in modern azerbaijanian language. چخ (chax) was a base for creating چخیدن (chaxidan) infinitive in persian. The چخ کردن (chax kardan) compound verb used in persian colloquial expression has been formed by کردن (kardan) (to do) which is the main component in forming compound verb and expresses the same meaning with چخیدن (chakhidan) [28, p. 192] We also see چغیدن (chaghidan) version of چخیدن (chakhidan). Çaxmaq is being understood in azerbaijanian language like the part of mechanism of firearms. İn the past it was using as very tough stone or iron (steel) piece inflaming the punk by rubbing to flint. [3, p. 437]

İn Sravnitelnıy slovar turechsko tatarskix narechiy [ 17, p. 461] the meanings expressed by چقمق (chagmag) explained like to bite, to sting, چاغو چاقو a bite, a string, the equialent of ilan dişlədi is given like ییلان چاقدی.

The root of chaqmaq چاق (chaq) was the base for composing چاقو (chaghu) in persian, meaning knife. İn modern persian as the equalient of کارد (kard) چاقو (chaghu) is also being used.

Chaxmaq is a loan word in persian and has been used with یای نسبت (yay-e nesbət) and turned to a hybrid word چخماقی (chakhmaghi) which means something made from chaxmaq. İt also related to a moustache, so as the lifted up moustache looks like to steel it was named like this. چخماقی (chakhmaghi) after turning to hybrid was loaned by azerbaijanian language and was used like çaxmağı bığ.

So we chaxmaq using like a millitary term during the centuries was loaned by persian, besides russian, arabic and other languages and was widely spreaded.

Satgeni. Stəkan. ساتگنی

[2, p. 527] ساتگنی – قدحی باشد بزرگ

(Satgeni- is a big goblet).

We see many writing forms in different literatures: ساتگین , ساتگینی, ساتگن, ساتکین, ساتکن İn persian dictionaries has been noted that the reminded word means goblet, a big wineglass, phonetic versions of this word also have beloved, favourite meaning. We read in Farhang-e Rashidi:

ساتگین – در ترکی بمعنی محبوب باشد، از اینجهت قدح را ساتگینی، ساتگنی بحذف یای اول گویند، یعنی

[25, p. 814] دوستکانی و آن عبارت از پیالۀ بزرگ باشد، که پر کرده بنام دوستی دهند

(Satgin-means “beloved, sevimli” in turkic language and in this meaning they call goblet satgini and satgeni by reducing “ی”, so big fulled wineglass – dustakani, was given as a sign of friendship).

The reminded word is an ancient form of stəkan, which is considering a russian loan word in azerbaijanian langauge. Korsh [11, p. 44] says this word was like tustəkan or may be tostəkən in turkic languages, the dostakan version in dialects is becoming weak by exsistance of tustuğan form in chaghatay. Dmitriyev [7, p. 568] bases on Korsh and Naseri and says that this word exsists like dostakan//tustakan in ancient turkic language.

Now we can say the latest form of “dostakan/tustakan” was loaned by persian basing on the examples. İn a book Thousand turkic words in persian [22, p. 56] satkin was noted as smth sold, for sale. İt seems like that the author has confused this word with satğın. Because as the ancient form of satkın//satgın was dostakan//tustakan, it is not related with satmaq (to sell) anyway.

Generally, in medieval dictionaries there are too many other words meaning goblet, wineglass. We also see many turkic words among them. Ogel [5, p. 160] writes: “We can cross with many monuments holding goblet in every district of east Europe, besides of Middle Asia, where turkic tribes were spreaded”.

So we see historical persian-turk relations have been reflected in many literary, historical sources. Dictionaries are from one of them.


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Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): DLT, DTS, FAQ, SSR.


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