Автор: Махмудова Нилуфар Равшановна

Рубрика: Филология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №5 (139) февраль 2017 г.

Дата публикации: 07.02.2017

Статья просмотрена: 8 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Махмудова Н. Р. Some reflections on the translation of gender aspects (on the materials of the novel of W. Collins «The woman in white») // Молодой ученый. — 2017. — №5. — С. 434-437.



The aim of this work is to identify, on the basis of a comparative analysis of the original text and translation, gender-specific language and the influence of gender on the translation result. In the Uzbek linguistics gender aspect of translation is a little studied phenomenon.

We aimed at identifying gender specificities of the novel of W. Collins “The woman in white” that define the system of characters, the creation of an artistic image and act as dominant in the translation. Consequently, Russian version of translation made by T. I. Leshenko-Sukhomlina and Uzbek version of translation made by A.Iminov [5, 6, 7].

The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifest itself in grammatical and social systems of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials.

Grammatical gender may cause translators some difficulties when they translate from source languages in which gender is differently grammaticalized compared with the target language. These difficulties may be particularly intensified when grammatical gender coincides with the sex of the referent; for example when the source language shows no gender distinction in the third-person pronoun but grammatical gender agreement patterns which may produce the effect of gendered self-reference through gender concord, and the target language shows not only no gender distinction in the third person pronoun, but also no grammatical gender agreement.

As mentioned earlier, the assignment of social gender is based on a stereotypical basis which makes it dependent on socio-historical and contextual factors. As these factors may change from one place, society, culture, context, or time period to another, translators frequently encounter the complicated problem as to how to translate gender which has so huge potential of variability.

We referred to a scene in Wilkie Collin‘s novel ‘The Woman in White’, as an example, in which a major character Walter Hartright, a teacher of drawing from Clement's Inn, is leaving his home Portland saying: My mother and sister had spoken so many last words, and had begged me to wait another five minutes so many times, that it was nearly midnight when the servant locked the garden-gate behind me.

Russian translation indicates the sex of the servant while in original it is unknown:

Матушке и сестре хотелось так много сказать мне на прощание и они столько раз просили меня подождать еще пять минут, что было уже около полуночи, когда наконец служанка закрыла за мной калитку.

Uzbek translation indicates the female sex of the servant as in Russian.

Онам билан синглим қанча насиҳатлари билан бир неча бор сабр қил, деб мени тўхтатаверганидан, ниҳоят хизматкор аёл орқамдан эшикни ёпиб қолганида вақт ярим кечага борган эди.

Consequently, we get the following:

Servant (no gender distinction) — служанка(female) -хизматкор аёл(female)

According to the factual material mass of the models with the suffix -ant, ent is characteristic of nouns with generalizing meaning [8].

“Servant” in the example doesn’t indicate sex identity of the person. Longman dictionary gives the following meaning of the word:

Servant: 1. Someone who is paid to clean someone’s house; cook for them, answer the door etc.

In ABBYY Lingvo:

servant

1) domestic servant слуга; служанка; прислуга

2) служащий (государственного учреждения)

In Oxford-American dictionary

– a person who performs duties for others, esp. a person employed in a house on domestic duties or as a personal attendant.

According to Collins, there is no reference to the servant and his/her gender throughout the novel, so a translator who wishes to render the above sentence into a language which shows grammatical gender in a way that gender of the servant must necessarily be determined, will face difficulties as to how to decide about the gender of the ‘servant’.

There may be two reasons why Uzbek and Russian translators use a female version of a servant. According to the hierarchy of servants in big houses male staff in rank was higher than female. Consequently, a poor family of Hartright who earned his living as a drawing master, could not afford to have a man-servant.

We should note, that Lackeys had high status among the domestic staff. Lackey did a lot of work around the house, both inside and outside. In the house he set and served the table, served tea, opened the door to guests and helped Butler. In addition, he carried luggage, accompanied a lady, when she went to visit, keeping a flashlight to scare away thieves, when the hosts went out to the street at night, and brought letters: http://www.butlerschool.com/interesting_facts.htm

But the second reason contradicts to the first, as the author of the original text makes some examples throughout the story with a house-maid.

The largest and fattest of all possible house-maids answered it, in a state of cheerful stupidity which would have provoked the patience of a saint.

It is worth to point out that a personal pronoun “it” serves as a deictic having been mentioned in the previous sentence “Finding no one in the hall I went up at once to my own sitting-room, made a bed for the dog with one of my old shawls, and rang the bell”[1].

We will try to analyze this sentence dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translation.

Служанка, самая рослая и толстая из всех, каких знал свет, отозвалась на мой звонок. Она была в таком бессмысленно веселом настроении, что это вывело бы из терпения и святого. Пухлое, бесформенное лицо ее растянулось в широченную улыбку при виде лежащей на полу раненой собаки.

Хонадан дастёр аёлларидан энг басавлату бақалоғи,назаримда, ҳатто сабр бардошли авлиёнинг ҳам ғашини келтиргудек аҳмоқона иржайиб келди. Ерда ётган мажруҳ махлуққа кўзи тушдию, тарвақайлаб кетган баркаш юзи икки томонига чўзилганича ишшайиб қолди.

For men, the stereotype of «fat» does have a negative assessment. The following example makes it possible to guess that Uzbek translator of the novel is a male [1]. A. Iminov translates the “fattest” as “бақалоғ” which in comparison with “семиз, тўла”sounds rude. The coarse usage of иржайиб, тарвақайлаб, баркаш,ишшайиб also indicate the sex of a male translator.

On the contrary, a perception of Russian version gives us a chance to guess that translator is a female — T. I. Leshenko-Sukhomlina.

The following scene again is related to the same house-maid, and again we have a chance to observe the mode of translation into Uzbek in accordance with a sexual identity of a translator.

Eng: I knocked, and the door was opened by the same heavy, over-grown housemaid whose lumpish insensibility had tried my patience so severely on the day when I found the wounded dog. I had, since that time, discovered that her name was Margaret Porcher, and that she was the most awkward, slatternly, and obstinate servant in the house. On opening the door she instantly stepped out to the threshold, and stood grinning at me in stolid silence.

«Why do you stand there?" I said. «Don't you see that I want to come in?"

«Ah, but you mustn't come in», was the answer, with another and a broader grin still.

«How dare you talk to me in that way? Stand back instantly!"

She stretched out a great red hand and arm on each side of her, so as to bar the doorway, and slowly nodded her addle head at me.

«Master's orders», she said, and nodded again.

Uzb: Тақиллатдим. Уни ўша жароҳатланган кучукни топиб олган куним бағри қаттиқлиги билан қонимга ташна қилган тепса тебранмас, сочи паҳмоқхизматкор аёл очди. Исми Маргарет Тотчер, шу хонадонда хизмат қилиб юрганлар орасида энг бесўнақайи, исқирти ва ўжари эканлигини ўша пайтдан билардим.

У эшикни шартта очиб ошхонадан ўтди-да, миқ этмай ишшайганича туриб қолди

— Нега йўлда суррайиб турибсиз? — дедим. — Ичкарига ўтмоқчиман, кўрмаяпсизми?

— Ҳе, ичкарига кириб бўпсиз. — жавоб берди у бехаёларча тиржайиб.

— Мен билан бундай муомала қилишни сизга ким қўйибди! Нари туринг-е!

У занжиранг бақувват қўллариниикки томонига тираб йўлимда ғов бўланича қовоқ калласини қатъи сарак — сарак қилди.

– Валинеъматнинг буйруқлари шу, пўнғиллади у яна бошини сарак-сарак қилиб.

The following stereotypes are attributed to the hose-maid: бағри қаттиқлиги билан қонимга ташна қилган тепса тебранмас, сочи паҳмоқ, бесўнақай, исқирт ва ўжар, ишшайган, суррайган, бехаёларча тиржайган, қовоқ калла, пўнғиллаган.

However, English and Russian version of translation sound more softer than Uzbek one.

Russian: Я постучала, и та самая толстая служанка, которая с такой тупой бесчувственностью отнеслась к раненой собаке, показалась на пороге. Ее звали Маргарет Порчер. Она была самой неуклюжей, глупой и упрямой из всей здешней прислуги.

Ухмыляясь, она молча застыла на пороге.

— Почему вы торчите здесь? — спросила я. — Разве вы не видите, что я хочу пройти?

— Но вы не войдете, — сказала она, ухмыляясь во весь рот.

— Как вы смеете так разговаривать? Посторонитесь сию же минуту!

Она загородила мне дорогу всей своей тушей, обхватила двери огромными красными лапами и кивнула безмозглой головой.

— Приказ хозяина, — сказала она и кивнула опять.

According to the translation of the lexeme servantin the following example, we would offer to substitute it with қулinstead of ёлланган хизматкор in Uzbek, consequently рабinstead of наемныйслуга. This case, in our opinion, would intensify the expressiveness of the statement.

But the Law is still, in certain inevitable cases, the pre-engaged servant of the long purse; and the story is left to be told, for the first time, in this place.

Лекин қонун яққол кўриниб турган муқаррар ҳолларда ҳам, ҳамон қаппайган ҳамённинг ёлланган хизматкори бўлиб қолган, шу туфайлигина ўз вақтида ошкора қилинмаган воқеа тафсилоти ушбу саҳифаларда ёритилмоқда.

Но в некоторых случаях закон до сих пор еще остается наемным слугой туго набитого кошелька, и потому эта история будет впервые рассказана здесь.

Our version of translation, i.e. lexical transformation of the lexeme servant.

Лекин қонун яққол кўриниб турган муқаррар ҳолларда ҳам, ҳамон қаппайган ҳамённинг қули бўлиб қолган, шу туфайлигина ўз вақтида ошкора қилинмаган воқеа тафсилоти ушбу саҳифаларда ёритилмоқда.

Но в некоторых случаях закон до сих пор еще остается наемным слугой туго набитого кошелька, и потому эта история будет впервые рассказана здесь.

Languages in which grammatical category of gender doesn’t exist, natural sexgets no grammatical expression in the language system and fixed mainly by lexical semantics [9].

I could hardly see my way to the pony-chaise which Mr. Fairlie had ordered to be in waiting for me.The driver was evidently discomposed by the lateness of my arrival. He was in that state of highly respectful sulkiness which is peculiar to English servants.

Кучер был явно обеспокоен моим опозданием, но, по обычаю вышколенных английских слуг, упорно молчал. Мы двинулись почти шагом. Дорога была плохая, и кучеру было трудно ехать по ней

Бунчалик кечикиб келишимдан жиловдорнинг ранжигани турган гап, лекин шунга қарамай, у инглиз лакейларига хос сиполикни қўлдан бермади.

Uzbek translator renders “driver — кучер” as жиловдор. Weconsider this case inappropriate, as жиловдор (коновод) is a man hired to take care of horses. It would be appropriate to use извошчи (аравакаш).

In Uzbek explanatory dictionary:

Извошчи Извош хайдовчи ёки унинг эгаси.

Жиловдор — Отларга қараш учун ажратилган аскар.

In the following sample we may observe the technique of lexical transformation — omission used by Uzbek translator.

Eng: «Where is Fanny?" I inquired.

«In my room, Miss Halcombe.The young woman is quite overcome, and I told her to sit down and try to recover herself».

— Фанни қаерда? — сўрадим ундан.

— Менинг хонамда, мисс Ҳалкомб. Бечора куйиб-ениб ўтирибди.Ўша ерда бироз ўзига келиб олиши зарурлигини тайинлаб чиқдим.

In our opinion, it would be possible to substitute бечораwithбечора қизor ёшқизча. Anyway, it is a choice of a translator in accordance with his cognition.

There is a similarity in both translation versions.

— Где сейчас Фанни? — спросила я.

— У меня в комнате, мисс Голкомб. Бедная девушка в большом горе, я велела ей посидеть там и успокоиться.

Romaine claims that there is evidence for the existence of ideological factors which enter into gender assignment in systems that are supposedly purely formal and arbitrary as well as in systems where gender is supposedly determined by sex. She adds that the gender systems of both types of languages support a world view that is inherently gendered at the same time as they allow ideological construction of what is female as Other [10]. Consequently, as translators translate gender-related materials, they inexorably must face with the ideological load these materials carry with themselves as well as the problem of how to handle them.

Where grammatical gender is a category with syntactic consequences throughout the grammar, English is said to show “semantic gender”, i.e. the nouns English speakers refer to as she are assumed.

Gender problems may occur in many other cases, in fact, everywhere where the source language, by means of agreement structures, operates differently from the target language, which is in connection with noun-modifications, pronoun uses, pronominal references, and so forth. The following example from Tim Vicary’s “Elephant Man” [11].

Then she saw him.

The scene is where a new nurse came to the hospital. Having seen Merrick (a creature like an elephant) she screamed and dropped the food on the floor.

Uzbek translator will probably address to lexical transformation considering the absence of grammatical gender in TL.

Cўнг Мерик уни кўрди.

The same example from the same book.

He wanted to talk to her too.(У у билан гаплашмоқчи бўлди)

Using the same method Uzbek translator will translate as following:

Мерик ўша еш аёл билан гаплашмоқчи бўлди.

Inattentive attitude to gender characteristics can lead to pragmatic errors, which are considered the most important in the translation of fiction. Therefore, for better translation is particularly important to study the features of a detailed reflection of the gender component in the language of literary texts as well in the original text and translation of the text and methods of transmission, as gender-specificities of the text can form an important element of literary structure of the text.

We hope that our first steps on gender researches in the field of translation will contribute to the development of gender aspects of translation as one of the important directions of gender linguistics and to further in-depth study of this problem in the theory of translation.

References:

  1. Абдуллаев М. А. Грамматический род как лингвистическая категория (на материале разносистемных языков): Дис. … канд. филол. наук. — Нукус, 2007. — 155 с
  2. Бабенко, Л. Г. Лингвистический анализ художественного текста. Теория и практика Текст.: учебник; практикум / Л. Г. Бабенко, Ю. В. Казарин. М.: Флинта: Наука, 2003. — 496 с.
  3. Виноградов, В. С. Введение в переводоведение (общие и лексические вопросы) Текст. / В. С. Виноградов. М.: Изд-во института общего) среднего образования РАО, 2001. — 224 с.
  4. Виноградов, В. С. Лексические вопросы перевода художественной прозы Текст. / В. С. Виноградов. — М.:Высш. шк., 1978. 350 с.
  5. Wilkie Collins The Woman in White. 1998. wilkie-collins.info›books_woman_white.htm
  6. «Женщина в белом» — роман В. Коллинза. (Перевод М.Лещенко-Сухомлиной).www.LibreBook.ru
  7. Оқ кийинган аёл. А. Иминов таржимаси. – Тошкент: Ўзб. Миллий кутубхонаси, 2010. – 649 б.
  8. Расулова М.И. Основы лексической категоризации в лингвистике. – Ташкент: Фан, 2005. – С. 124.
  9. Ibid - p.74.
  10. Romaine S.Communicating Gender. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1999. – p.66.
  11. Tim Vicary “Elephant Man”.Oxford Bookworms Library.english-easy-ebooks.com›…elephant-man…tim-vicary…

[1]deictic ['dīktik] 1. deic·tic Linguistics of, relating to, or denoting a word or expression whose meaning is dependent on the context in which it is used, e.g., here, you, me, that one there, or next Tuesday.

Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): gender, grammatical gender, grammatical gender agreement, Uzbek translator, translation, gender distinction, T. I. Leshenko-Sukhomlina, gender agreement patterns, gender identity, servant, original text, gender specificities, Russian version, gender manifest, social gender, gender concord, target language, lexical transformation, his/her gender, method Uzbek translator.

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