The language is regularly updated with new terms and words due to the rapid development of society. Therefore the lexical-semantic features of devices of the expression of intensity of the words’ meanings in the different systemic languages” requires in-depth study as well as objective correlation and sphere of functioning.
Such studies can make a significant contribution to systematization and elaboration of this problem. This article deals with comparative analysis of intensive meaning of the words which are expressed on the lexical level in languages of different systems: English, Russian and Uzbek. But the issues of their interaction in the compared languages were not studied deeply by linguists.
The Category of intensity has 3 stages of formation in the way of its development.
The first stage can be described as «connecting element» between the study of the intensity on the grammatical and lexical levels. At this stage, the study of this category affected only a small amount of intensive words:
1. Verbs with the intensive meaning;
2. adjectives with high degree of intensity of the words’ meaning.
The second stage is characterized by the determination of intensive words as an independent object of the lexicological study. This stage has 3 approaches: onomasiological (name) which is inherent in the analysis «from meaning to sound», where the starting point is the meaning of the word, and semasiological approach is characterized by the trend of analysis «of the sound to the value», where the starting point is soundof the words. Motivological approach is the third approach which emphasizes the individual's ability to match the lexemes with linguistic and non-linguistic reality. Intensity in the fiction texts, which clearly reflect the writer's outlook, has been extensively studied in the third stage.
Rodionova S. E divides all lexical devices into two groups:
1. Explicit devices of intensity — intensifiers, which are formed by devices of intensive words: adjectives, adverbs and other (очень красивый — very beautiful — judachiroyli, смертельноопасный – mortally dangerous — o’taxavfli).
2. Implicit devices of intensification are the words which contain in its meaning the seme of intensity — intensificates (восхитительный — admirable — maftunqiladigan, омерзительный — ghoulish — jirkanch, чудовищный — monstrous — dahshatli).
There are the following degrees of intensifiers: Classification.
1. The degree of intensification of the words’ meaning. (lexical intensifiers);a high degree of intensification (greatly, much).
3. The highest degree of intensification(completely, full, perfectly).
2. The grammar degree (degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs)
4. The morphological structure; permanent (rather, every, quite); preferential intensifiers, (which are functioning as intensifiers of words’ meaning- (exactly, such, horribly) Probable,(often function as a lexical units. They include: really, completely), unique intensifiers, lexical units which express intensity of speech under certain conditions. They are expressed by four words: all, every, firmly, even. Single intensifiers that are different from other types with the strong connotative meaming (grossly, huge).
5. According to the element or relation of the dominant word is intensified.
There is arelation between intensity and other related categories. The gradual is the quantitative difference between objects and phenomena, the intensity clearly expresses emotional deviation from the standard of these phenomena.
In many works the category of intensity is correlated with the evaluative category. The difference between them is the quantitative meaning of intensity.
The expressiveness –is the qualitative aspect of the speech whereas the intensity –is the quantitative aspect.
The category of intensity is asemantic category, the category of derivative between the categories of quantitative and qualitative
The intensity in the English, Russian and Uzbek languages is expressed by lexical language devices, which are ranked as word formation, phraseological, stylistic and morphological devices.
The most common intensive affixes in the English language are: super-, huper-, over-, ultra. These affixes saved in the foreign-languages. In some Russian words we can find the analogs of these affixes. (пере -; пре -; сверх- наи-; пре; при;) orintensiveadverbs (очень; более; далее; сверх; вне; чрезмерно) and the Uzbek language (juda; zo’r; nihoyatda; ortiqcha, me’yoridanortiq, oshirib; o’ta; eng) The vocabulary of the Russian language is rich in words — intensifiers which are formed by adding the suffix: -ан (-ян); -ач; -л-; -ун; аст- (-ат); -ист-; -ит- (-овит-), whichcan not be said about the English and Uzbek languages.
Compound nouns also have intensity’s meaning. This phenomenon can be seen in the above three compared languages.
Adverbs are the most common devices of the expression of intensity of the words’ meanings in the language.
Qualitative adjectives form adverbs, which are inherent to have two meanings: the basic qualitative meaning andthe secondary meaning as an intensifier of the words’ meaning. And these motivated adverbs mainly develop this meaning as a primary meaning.
Adjectives are divided into 2 groups: strong and weak Strong adjectives describe exceptional features of the things or persons. These Adjectives have insensitiveseme in their structure. They cannot be used with these adjectives. Weak Adjectives don’t possess the intensity in their meaning. These Adjectives are intensified with the help of adverbs Very "«, really ", and» extremely ":
The Category of intensity can also be expressed by stylistic devices of the language, which are expressed by the pleonasm, repetition, gradation. Pleonasm expresses the intensity by duplicating an element of the meaning. (New innovation, героический подвиг, yashashjoyimanzili.). Repetition — is a device of expressing the stylistic intensity (if repetitive elements have semantics of intensity or have the ability to give the connotation of the intensity of the other language units. Graduation –is a stylistic device, based on the principles of graduality.
Synonymic line — is a group of words, united by a common meaning. The main position in this line belongs to stylistically neutral word — a dominant word, which determines the meaning of all other lexical units of a certain Synonymic line.
The category of intensity can be expressed by the comparative phraseological units in combination of conjunctions In English -as / like, in Russianбудто/ словно / точно and Uzbek huddi, kabi, dek. (As fast as a hare — quick as a hare — quyondektez; as brittle as glass — fragile as glass — oynakkabi.)
Intensification is typical in all the borders and areas of language functioning. Each lexical unit of intensification shows the relation of the subject of speech to the reality, accompanied by specific connotative semantics, fulfilling its functional load. The Research of the category of intensity on the level of functional — semantic approach allows to uncover the different interdependent ways and devices of its transmission.
Accordingly, the choice of the device of language representation of the category of intensity inevitably involves choice on the level of cognitive meaning, and on the level of its material expression.