The inhabitants of this sacred land-Khorezm made regal, modest, destitute, wholesome, unique and daily meals, drinks, sweets, ointments by effective usage of local plants, sprouts animals and poultry. Khorezm meals go back to the remote past. Whereas, as written in the Avesto: «Every creature in this material world is alive because of nutrition, with out it all of them are dead».
The hunters of the last stone age (40–12 millenium BC) in Ustyurt plato established the huts in a shape of half- basement on the hills, stretched to the coasts of several water-basins around Yonboshqal’a hill. One of them is the site of Yonbosh-4. The hut was 8–10 metres high in a shape of cone with wood pillars. As a result of an archaeological excavations, It was found tortoise shells and eggs, the pods of birds’ eggs, olive seeds and fish bones. This is remarkable that 88 % of bones was fish bones [1, p. 51–52].
According to the results of archaeological research of М. А. Itina in the Yakkaporson-2, built by the population of Oqchadarya water-basin, it was found the remains of bronze-made hammer and grain mashing equipment [2, p. 1963].
As a result of occupying with cattle-breeding and farming of the population of Yakkaporson, their daily menu included meat and flour products, as well as, the population of Sariqamish water-basin consumed mostly meat and flour products. According to historical data, the population of Quyisay reared large and small-horned creatures. The bones of domestic animals amounted 55 % and the cattle-breeding played significant role [3, p. 24].
The appearance of the meals could be changed, but their ingredients were always water, verdures and meat. People have kept on improving them relying on their cooking experience. We can catch a glimpse of some references about the medieval Khorezm meals in «Saydana» (Beruniy), «Konunat-tib» (Avicenna), «Manafi-al-inson» (Abulgozi Bakhodirhon). Also in «Relics from ancestors» (Beruniy) there are some information about ceremonial and holiday meals preserved. We give information about there meals later.
Russian soldiers also left a great deal of information about the Khorezm meals in their diaries. Russian ambassadors noted that wheat grew very well in the land of Khiva, and the local people sold their axcess harvest to their neighboring.
Turkmens and other nomadic tribes. In addition to that, they let us know, the people of Khorezm cultivated rice plant every year, regardless of insufficient amount of water and the way they could get oil from cotton, sesame and other kinds of plants. There is a saying among our people about the main food stuffs of the Khorezm culinary: «Three months on pumpkin, three months on fish, three months on beef and milk, and three months on melon». The ancient people of Khorezm made more than ten types of meals with each kind of pumpkin and fish; even a melon was regarded as a course of meal.
We could have classified the Khorezm meals as — solid, liquid, containing plants, meaty meals or daily, holiday and ceremonial meals, also as seasonal meals. But, we did not do so. Because a great number of these meals have been abolished and some of them can be cooked at any time according to the guest’s wish.
We only mentioned when it is acceptable to eat a particular meal relying on medical regulations. We want to affirm that, according to the preparation and ingredients of a particular meal we can make out how far it is ancient. Since onion, tomato, potato, cabbage and such vegetables came into our country in XVII-XIX centuries as a result of the commercial ties, between Russian and Central Asia. Now we give information about particular meals.
Our country is being admired by its great culture and science and ancient monuments. Due to the independence, our country is turning to a great touristic center. It should be pointed out that there are more than 4000 ancient monuments and art memorials, which belong to different periods and civilizations in our area, 140 of them are included to the list of UNESCO protection. Especially our rich material-cultural heritage and unique monuments in our ancient cities give an evidence to a high level in international touristic market of Uzbekistan [4, p. 6–7].
From the early years of independence, measures were applied rapidly to develop tourism in our republic. National company «Uzbektourism» was founded according to the decree of the first president of the Republic of Uzbekistan on July 27, 1992. The law of «Tourism», which adopted in 1999 is a main project, adjusting the works in the field of tourism. It should be pointed out that tourism is one of profitable branch of world economy. It is known that, the importance of companies, which are specialized on submitting touristic service and products in high quality and attracting foreign tourists. At the meantime, 506 touristic companies are operating in our country.
A lot of hotels were built in our country during the independence, which requires to international standards, the present ones were reconstructed. These hotels are able to contest with foreign hotels on service quality, existing conveniences and conditions.
Business Fund projects in Khorezm bread, dishes and other food outlets covering the history of museums and traditional food and quality improvement. After all, the uniqueness of the region’s ethnography. In Khorezm cuisine and regional consumer, culture is quite different from other regions of the republic [5, p. 119].
National company «Uzbektourism» is operating actively on displaying the touristic capacity through providing the participation of the national tourism operators in international touristic fairs and exhibitions.
It should be pointed out that Uzbekistan’s national is being successfully represented in the international touristic fairs such as Istanbul (Turkey), Madrid (Spain), Riga (Latvia), Berlin (FRG), Moscow (Russia), Paris (France), Rome (Italy), Tokyo (Japan) and London (Great Britain).
In conclusion, our country, which attracted everybody with its highly developed culture and science, and ancient monuments, is being turned to a large touristic center. It will certainly serve to develop our country.
- Толстов С. П. По следам древнехорезмийской цивилизации. М-Л, «Наука», 1948, стр. 51–52.
- Итина М. А. Поселение Яккапарсон-2 / раскопки 1958–1959 гг /. МХЭ, Вып. 6, 1963.
- Вайнберг Б. И. Кочевники на границих Хорезма. М-Л, «Наука», 1971, стр. 24.
- Oллаберганов О. Истиқлол нуридан яшнаган воҳа. // Ўзбекистон архитектураси ва қурилиши. 2008. № 4. — Б. 6–7.
- Жуманиязова М, Ў.Абдуллаев, А. Абдурасулов, Б. Абдримов. Хоразмнинг анъанавий таомлари тарихидан. Т., «Янги нашр», 2015.