Communication define differently. The most common type definitions includes the concept of "exchange or transfer": the transfer of information from one person to another, the transfer or communication of thoughts and feelings, exchange of thoughts and feelings...
Community — processes in nature are not inter-individual "and social, takes place within a particular social group, collective, society as a whole. They arise due to social need, social need, providing a collective activity. But it provides a communication not directly, but through interaction. The latter, in turn, serves the collective activity.
In a situation of communication people come into contact, support him, pass the word companion in and out of communication. Thus, communication itself is served by processes that do not depend on its content and function, — contact processes.
Teacher communication — a professional teacher communication with students in the process of training and education in the classroom or outside the training situation has certain pedagogical functions and aimed at creating a favorable psychological climate, as well as psychological optimization of educational activity and the relationship between the teacher and students in student collective. Teacher communication- is always to some extent contradictory, and often conflicting communication. In order to be productive, it must be based on trust relationships, understanding between teacher and students, offering a creative search for new forms of communication and precluding the stamps in the behavior of the teacher.
But it is doubtful whether it will be possible, if the main efforts of the teacher will continue to be directed at maintaining strict discipline in the classroom. Perhaps the key to the solution of this problem must be sought in productive dialogue, based on student interest.
The activities of the teacher is based on the laws of communication. First of all, the interaction of teacher and student is to share information between the cognitive and affective-evaluative character. And the transmission of this information is carried out by both verbal and through various means of nonverbal communication: facial expressions, pantomime, gestures, etc. Thus, the information function performed communication.
Communication as dialogue takes place under conditions of adequate reflection of other people. Psychologically competent teacher perceptions of student helps to establish on this basis, the mutual understanding and effective cooperation. It is a social — perceptive communication functions. There are two kinds of interrelated social perception:
– actual perceptual (perception of the child or another person);
– empathy (a special sensitivity to the child — his compassion, empathy with him, etc...).
The function of social perception in the pedagogical communication is that the teacher is attentive to the behavior of the child, his words, gestures, intonations, changes in appearance and behavior. But most importantly — for the outward manifestations of behavior and "sees" the child's state of the teacher's thoughts and feelings, to anticipate the intentions and actions.
The student, for its part, too, is trying to "read" the behavior, mood, and attitude of the teacher. Therefore, it is important for teachers to be able to show their feelings, find suitable at present verbal and nonverbal behaviors that students be clear, open and sincere. The function of self-help in the pedagogical communication and self-expression of the teacher and the student. However, communication and psyche are intimately connected: in the presentation of the so-called inner world of the teacher students of communication instruments is carried out and, in addition, the very act of this presupposes that it this inner world.
The issue of increasing motivation, retention and development of students' interest to the subject "foreign language" attracted much attention, both in psychology and in the methods of teaching the subject.
Response can be attributed to:
1) the creation of a specially designed exercise program , by performing that students would feel the result of its operations;
2) When learning a new language is possible to apply in such exercises like crossword puzzles, drawing on history image. For example, the game “Find the word”. We give grid cells, each cell is written letter of the alphabet. Among the set of letters hidden words on the "program" topic. Students must find the words, that have been found in the list, and translate. Instructions :
3) Words can be written forward, backward, vertically; horizontally, or diagonally all words related to the theme of "program".
4) You should look for the following words, mark them on the grid and write transfer to the side so that you understand their meaning.
5) Crossword can be used not only as individual activity of the child, but as a collective also. Class is divided into two groups (A and B). Make up crossword with words on the topic, then all the words of a crossword puzzle equally divided, is 2 blank forms, one of them is filled with a part of the word, the other — the second, so that they complement each other. One form is given by the group A, the other — Group B. In order to fill a crossword puzzle requires the participation of two groups: Group A Group B explains the meaning of those words that are in its form, and then change the group.
Work in groups A and B. You are group A
Some words in this crossword missed. Group B knows what they are. Group B also has some words that are not in their crossword.
Use it in turns to ask each other the value of the missing words.
The use of this method as a compilation of the history of the image is also used for the study of new vocabulary. This method develops the imagination of students, but also allows students to show their knowledge gained in other lessons or from personal experience.
6) involving the emotional sphere in the process of learning
Students are invited to a proverb, according to which it is necessary to make the story so that the end of history itself was saying. You can use life situations or make up a story.
7) the nature of the teacher's pedagogical influences, in particular the presence of incentives and reinforcements;
8) It is necessary to stimulate the students to encourage them to answers. For example, first, to answer the above points to put the assessment as a result of the students will have another motive (a good estimate) to the study of the subject.
9) the use of audiovisual media in the classroom;
The use of several means of presentation in the complex if the available tables, charts, figures are out of date or do not meet the intention of the teacher, the presentation — the modern solution to the problem. It is appropriate, in particular, because that does not switch the attention to technical pause, hanging posters, including overhead projectors, etc., and allows you to focus on the content.
10) the use of personal individualization;
Every child is a person, therefore, to each student needs to choose an individual approach.
11) the development of a system of extra-curricular activities that enhance the motivational side of language learning. It is necessary to involve children in the staging of performances, sketches, etc.
Also thanks to the observations, it can be said that an increase in motivation goes through:
– involvement of students in independent work in the classroom;
Create special exercises in which each student would be looking for its decision.
– problem tasks and situations;
For students is very important link learning activities with real-life situations. This connection is easily traceable in the game «Communication» .In this game you need to help your friend. Your friend got into an unfamiliar city, and he had to get to the theater, using the map, you need to explain how he can get to your destination.
– control of knowledge and skills ;
In a timely manner to carry out control sections for reading, speaking, grammar, listening comprehension.
– the use of cognitive games;
Intrinsic motivation determines the ratio of students to the subject and provides progress in mastering a foreign language. If a student causes to engage in the activity itself, as he likes to talk, to read, to perceive foreign speech at the hearing, to learn new things, then we can say that he has an interest in the study of foreign languages and to ensure the conditions for achieving some success. By means of internal motivation are various types of quiz, which serve as a stimulus of speaking a foreign language that students themselves realize the desire to find answers to questions of interest to them. The search for truth in the senior school age is usually in disputes, discussions that are not only a means of knowledge, but also a means of self-expression. Observations show that in the process of discussing the participation of all students, including those generally passive in class.
The training components interact as follows:
The student and how he masters the foreign-language knowledge, skills and abilities: what motivates him to work.
The teacher teaches and how he guided the methodological principles, using the methods, techniques, means and forms of learning.
The very subject of "foreign language" — i.e., language and speech units, which must be entered into the memory of students.
Thus, the formation of positive attitudes to school subject to be considered factors emanating from the one we teach, how to teach and what to teach.
As a result of training in the classroom, where he regularly met the conditions of increase of motivation, at the end of the study carried out tests, testing to determine the level of mastery of the material. The results showed that children significantly better assimilate the topics that used games, special exercises.
Indicators on the topics studied in the traditional way, turned out to be much lower:
Students make up crossword puzzles, and a class of their guesses in the classroom or on the contests crossword lovers topics.
The students write interesting works which use acquired knowledge, doing drawings to their answers.
To master the ability to create texts in journalistic style on the socio-political, moral and ethical issues.
They know how to listen and hear, are able to defend their views and beliefs.
There broaden their horizons, intellectual cross-fertilization, development of aesthetic taste.
The boys clearly formulate questions to clarify the essential features of an object or phenomenon.
Learn to explain his point of view, trying to defend it.
The ability to engage in dialogue.
Giving a review of the response.
The experience of learning a foreign language leads to the conclusion — the beginning of the lesson is one of its most important stages, largely determines the success of the lesson. The task of the teacher at this stage — just enter students in the atmosphere of a foreign language, replacing the formal charging org. moment speech in the form of dialogue. The use of teacher external and internal speech motives eliminates the artificiality and artificiality of pupils speech and brings this stage of the lesson to natural speech in a foreign language. Regular, purposeful conduct voice charging without much effort and time consuming, and can repeat firmly grasp the language, to fix new grammatical structures and turns of speech, it is best to master the skill of dialogue, the ability to ask general and specific questions briefly and concisely answer them.
- E. A. Maslyko, Babinski P. K. Handbook of the teacher of a foreign language. Minsk: Higher School, 1996
- Brophy, J. (2008). Developing Students’ Appreciation for What Is Taught in School. Educational Psychologist,43 (3), 132-141.
- Cordova, D. I. and Lepper, M. R. (1996). Intrinsic Motivation and the Process of Learning: Beneficial Effects of Contextualization, Personalization, and Choice. Journal of Educational Psychology,88 (4), 715-730. Dörnyei, Z. (2005).
- Zahorik, J. A. (1996) Elementary and Secondary Teachers’ Reports of How They Make Learning Interesting. The Elementary School Journal, 96 , 551-564.