Globalization problems: social and cultural aspects | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Автор:

Рубрика: Социология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №30 (134) декабрь 2016 г.

Дата публикации: 03.01.2017

Статья просмотрена: 27 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Хадисова К. В. Globalization problems: social and cultural aspects // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №30. — С. 358-361. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/134/36775/ (дата обращения: 12.12.2018).



Studying of philosophical and sociocultural aspects of globalization is an urgent research problem as sharpness of the questions connected with process of global changes of kulturo-civilization life of mankind, political, social and economic tendencies, cultural unification and homogenization, the prospect of further development of the world, the place and a role in it of the person, a problem of ethnocultural and gender identity, interethnic interaction, an ecological safety of the planet is extraordinary.

Globalization perspective sharply debatable, contradictory and dynamically developing.

The modern world develops extremely quickly. In present period all mankind is included into single system of social and cultural and economic, political and other connections — globalization. Globalization is a general and multilateral process of cultural, ideological and economic integration of the states, the state associations, national and ethnic unities that represents the accompanying phenomenon of a modern civilization. The understanding of globalization differs depending on theoretical line items of authors. One part of scientists, recognizing availability of essential changes in the modern world, consider globalization more likely as process of evolutionary development of the world, but not as quantum leap in its transformation. Neomarxists see in modern processes the final stage of development of capitalism generating the increasing polarization of the world in economic parameter, and as a result — and political instability. For most of the researchers adhering to neoliberal tradition, globalization is qualitatively new stage of development of political structure of the world and, and also a human civilization in general» [2, S. 141].

Specifics of problems of globalization are multidimensional. Globalization in its modern manifestation appears as multi-level and multilateral system of various integration manifestations. Thus, it is possible to mark out its aspects: global communication, global economy, global policy, global culture, global science, global language, global conduct of life.

Globalization of economies represents creation of a single zone where goods freely move, services, information, the equity where the ideas extend and their carriers move freely, development of modern financial and credit institutes is stimulated and mechanisms of their interaction are fixed. Globalization implies formation of general international legal, economic and information space. Process gives a powerful impulse to forming of the political relations between the countries.

The global market for the last two decades revived a number of the negative social phenomena: sharp differentiation of the income, mass unemployment, an impoverishment, alienation, marginalization’s are considered as a direct consequence of implementation in practice of logic of the global free market [1, S. 452].

The globalization gaining strength covers all parties of modern life. Having arisen in economy, it then extended to policy and culture. Cultural globalization leads to further replacement of high culture and empery of mass culture, to washing out of cultural diversity, uniformization and standardization. In foreign literature, several points of view on processes of cultural globalization and commercialization are traced. The first point of view recognizes that cultural globalization is objectively necessary and positive phenomenon in the basis. The second point of view, on the contrary, sharply critical, one may say, apocalyptic in relation to cultural globalization. For example, a phenomenon of the cultural industry which generated the mass, commercial culture which is referred to as today media and postmodern. In their opinion, distribution of products of the cultural industry leads to degradation of society, to irreparable loss of what constitutes a basis of authenticity of the person and his life.

The modern person feels social estrangement, uncertainty and instability of the world, owing to development of the technogenic, information sphere, militarism more and more that causes emergence of existential vacuum. About it E. Heywood writes: «The basic moment of uncertainty is expressed in «society of risk». Society of risk is a social education in which growth of individualism is followed by easing of traditions, internal communications and traditional institutes. The uncertainty generated at the same time is beyond far that it happens in case of simple acceleration of rates and strengthening of unpredictability of economic and social processes: it purchases personal, even mental forms, all steady and habitual is displaced from the places, questionable there are basic values of people, the sense of their life» [3, S. 178–179].

Globalization is shown practically at all levels of activity of society:

• Global communication. New means of communication in interaction with advanced old (jet aircraft, television, radio, the Internet, the mobile phone) connect people on different continents. Geographical obstacles and interstate borders depart. The space and time contract, people and the people approach. Information and communicative technologies opened ample opportunities for interaction between the certain people divided by continents, geographical distances. It should be noted also such phenomenon of global system of communication — a phenomenon of social networks, the largest of which already totals 1 billion users.

− Global science. The global science is created that is promoted by the international academic exchanges, development of world academic infrastructure (international forums, magazines, publishing houses), standardization of the international standard of education — Bologna Process.

− Problem of an ecological safety of the planet and demographic problem. In case of the modern level of development of productive forces global nature was purchased by a problem of environmental protection. Destruction of the habitat shows that now it is not only about protection of the person against forces of nature, but also about protection of the nature against technogenic intervention of the person and against operation of the nature by it. New systems of arms represent technologically perfect removers of mankind. All this demands from the world community to coordinate ecological measures, to combine efforts in conservation, to fight together for preservation of peace on the planet.

These global tendencies of world development testify to need of development of modern scientific outlook. Affirms as the report of the Roman club «First Global Revolution» that for change of the menacing tendencies of world development the civilization providing complete and conscious management of a development of humanity is necessary. Purposeful regulation commensurate technogenic load of the environment, becomes the determining factor promoting new dialogue of the person with the nature and creation of technological conditions for the solution of social problems on the principles of humanity. It is impossible to treat process of globalization unambiguously. It renders both great positive influence on society, and huge negative impact. A considerable part of mankind got access inconceivable before to knowledge and data thanks to progress in the sphere of technologies, in particular, to the Internet. The global scope of the competition urges on a labor productivity, encourages scientific developments, attracts the capital in zones of social stability. However, negative consequences of globalization are much more significant.

Globalization is shown practically at all levels of activity of society:

− Global communication. New means of communication in interaction with advanced old (jet aircraft, television, radio, the Internet, the mobile phone) connect people on different continents. Geographical obstacles and interstate borders depart. The space and time contract, people and the people approach. Information and communicative technologies opened ample opportunities for interaction between the certain people divided by continents, geographical distances. It should be noted also such phenomenon of global system of communication — a phenomenon of social networks, the largest of which already totals 1 billion users.

− Global science. The global science is created that is promoted by the international academic exchanges, development of world academic infrastructure (international forums, magazines, publishing houses), standardization of the international standard of education — Bologna Process.

− Problem of an ecological safety of the planet and demographic problem. In case of the modern level of development of productive forces global nature was purchased by a problem of environmental protection. Destruction of the habitat shows that now it is not only about protection of the person against forces of nature, but also about protection of the nature against technogenic intervention of the person and against operation of the nature by it. New systems of arms represent technologically perfect removers of mankind. All this demands from the world community to coordinate ecological measures, to combine efforts in conservation, to fight together for preservation of peace on the planet.

These global tendencies of world development testify to need of development of modern scientific outlook. Affirms as the report of the Roman club «First Global Revolution» that for change of the menacing tendencies of world development the civilization providing complete and conscious management of a development of humanity is necessary.

Purposeful regulation commensurate technogenic load of the environment becomes the determining factor promoting new dialogue of the person with the nature and creation of technological conditions for the solution of social problems on the principles of humanity. It is impossible to treat process of globalization unambiguously. It renders both great positive influence on society, and huge negative impact. A considerable part of mankind got access inconceivable before to knowledge and data thanks to progress in the sphere of technologies, in particular, to the Internet. The global scope of the competition urges on a labor productivity, encourages scientific developments, attracts the capital in zones of social stability. However, negative consequences of globalization are much more significant.

References:

  1. G. P. Anilionis, N. A. Zotova. Global world: single and divided. — M.: International relations, 2005. — 676 pages.
  2. V. V. Mironov. Philosophy: the textbook for HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS. Culture in the conditions of globalization (/http://society.polbu.ru/mironov_philosophy/ch128_i.html)
  3. E. Heywood. Political science. — M.: UNIT DANA, 2005. — 544 pages.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): DANA, EDUCATION, HIGHER, INSTITUTIONS, UNIT.


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