Article revises the technology of organizing the educational process in higher educational institutions of the Republic, the model structure of educating socially active person is elaborated, and the criteria of the level of students` education are defined. The role of spiritual-cultural heritage in the education of youth is especially highlighted.
The “National Program of training specialists” and law “On education” are directed on the formation of a person who is selfless, independent, socially active and struggles for the Republic of Uzbekistan in occupying in fitting place in the world community. Moreover, the formation of a harmonious person through continuous educational system is defined as a main problem. I. Karimov, the First President of the Republic of Uzbekistan stated that “Our main task here is to continue successively, raise to new levels and increase the influence of good deeds, started in the independent years, such as restoring our national values, the spiritual role and reputation of our sacred religion” [7,p.40] and he elaborated theoretical of practical bases of this politically very important task.
XXI century for Uzbekistan has started as a century of education, culture, economy, science and technology, social-political growth and innovations. The system of continuous education was directed to the democratization of the educational process, renovations of pedagogical methods, modernization of practical process, and reformation of all types of educational processes and education became main innovation principle. Main target of reforms — creation of democratic, civil, legal and secular bases of a country cannot be achieved without educating socially active new generation.
However, social and political situation in the beginning of XXI century stipulated following:
– Instructions of I.Karimov, the First President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the necessity of modernizing, radically renovating and liberalizing the educational system;
– Planning the implementation of “National Program of training specialists” in its second in third level with advanced pedagogical technologies [6,p.29];
– Content analysis of spiritual-educational works of educational institutions, result on learning the educational practice directly in specific places ;
– Increase of different types of youth-oriented ideological threats, organization of spiritual-educational works of educational institutions based on the principles of advanced pedagogical technologies and their application in practice, i.e. designing and attaining the educational results with guarantee;
– Enrichment youth-students` education with projects of a new content and providing the educational system with staff who are eligible to democratize and liberalize the educational process.
The formation of harmonious person with high spiritual values who thinks freely, knowledgeable, sharp-witted, can stand against to any strange outside ideas and thoughts, and socially active was very important for all levels of world civilization, particularly it was the dream of our ancestors and nowadays it is one of the most critical tasks of our people, the government of Uzbekistan.
If one looks to the history of our ancestors he sees amazing scientific capacity, rich history, and spiritual-cultural heritage. Their valorous way is a pattern and a source of education for us. There are many things in our history that we can use as a pattern. Beautiful piece of our culture invaluable”Avesta” is pervaded with good ideas. It urges people to live through three main laws: good wishes, good words and good deeds. This tripled serves to educate to real person. In addition, in states the idea that person can reach wellbeing condition in his life when prays and works at the same time; meanwhile new generation following this pray-and-work way will be healthy, harmonious. The meaning of life of young people, the book states, should be covered by good wishes, good words and good deeds. Such ideas formed the ideology of our ancestors and served as a basis for their education.
Scientific works and hadiths of Abu Abdulloh Muhammd ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Abu Rayhon Beruni, Abu Nasr Forobi, Abu Ali ibn Sino(Avicenna), Mahmud Koshgari, Yusuf Khos Hojib, Mirzo Ulugbek, Alisher Navoi, Hussyan Voiz Koshifi, Abu Abdulloh Muhammd ibn Ismoil al-Bukhari, Abu Iso Muhammd ibn Iso ibn Saadara at-Sulaymi al-Bugi at-Termizi, Ahmad Yassavi, Khoja Bahovuddin Naqshband and others pay huge attention to the formation of harmonious person and served for the developmend of science and contributed to the spiritual-educational advance of humanity.
Our heroes who struggled for peace and freedom: Tumaris, Shiroq, Spitamen, Muqanna, Jaloliddin Manguberdi, Najmidin Kubro, Pahlavon Mahmud, Temur Malik and others. Moreover, works, heroism and spiritual heritage of our statesmen such as Amir Temur, Shohruh Mirzo, Mirzo Ulugbek, Husayn Bayqaro, Mirzo Bobur, Humoyun Mirzo, Akbarshoh, Shohjahon and others serve as a clear example for our youth to become socially active and harmonious people.
Unique manuscripts that glorify wishes and drams of all humans, urging for benevolence play huge role in our national education; they serve to strengthening national pride of our youth. One of these important sources is the Jadid movement. There are a lot of sources about this movement can be found nowadays. We can give a list of activists of this movement as Abdulla Kodiri, Abdulla Avloni, Abdurauf Fitrat, Abdulvohid Burhoni — Munzim, Mahmudhodja Behbudi, Munavvar Qori Abdurashidkhonov and other.
The analysis of above stated sources show that educational technologies for specific situations were created but education conception, technologies and methodologies in complex were not. Therefore, the creation of educational conception and technology that serve for the formation of socially active students in higher educational institutions should be our main goal. Following important tasks should be for this purpose:
– To learn the historical and spiritual heritage of our ancestors and analyzing to what extent this issue was elaborated in it;
– To elaborate the educational conception on the formation of socially active students;
– To create a system of educational conception on the formation of socially active students in higher educational institutions;
– To elaborate methodological bases and technologies on the formation of socially active students;
– To hold experiments, define pedagogical efficiency and others.
Methodological bases for the implementation of above mentioned goal is created in our Republic, namely the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, “National program of training specialists” and law “On education”, decrees, resolutions, orders of the Ministry of higher and secondary special education, State Educational standards and other normative documents.
Researches defined following on the implementation of above stated goals and objectives:
- The conception on the formation of socially active person in higher educational institutions was elaborated and substantiated scientifically-methodologically that this problem is important from the point of view of pedagogy [5,p.41–45];
- The content, tools, methods and methodology of the educational-methodological process oriented to the self-evaluation and self-diagnosis of students were elaborated in higher educational institutions [1,p.118].
- In educating students as socially active people during continuous educational system the educational system of education based on succession and continuity, didactical bases was elaborated; in addition, directed to the formation of skills of professors on agitation works for educating students as socially active people [4,p.182–183].
- Methodological-theoretical bases of educating students as socially active people were created. Educational process directed to self-education by students through providing them with information has been launched .
- Scientific-methodological recommendations oriented to the self-evaluation and self-diagnosis of students were elaborated in higher educational institutions and applied in practice and the level of their efficiency was defined.
On the basis of held researches the model of educating students as socially active was created and it consists following integral parts:
– Spiritual development of the person;
– Ideological immunity and resistance;
– Mode of healthy life and physical culture;
– Ecological knowledge and culture;
– Religious tolerance
– Political-legal knowledge and culture.
We used following methods and tools to instill the essence of these integral parts in the minds of students. One of the methods recommended by us includes necessary knowledge set for the formation of socially active people and based on this set of knowledge we created the test bank in the electronic version. “Educating as a socially active person” software was created and included in the teaching system; based on this software we organized an educational process.
Now, I’d like to illustrate the hold experiments with students on this software
First year students of the higher educational institution participated in our experiments. Their hold experiment with prior explaining, recommending and giving instructions to students what requires their more attention, which knowledge to learn, which sources from the memory of computer look for the information and how to use it.
In each stage of using the software during educational process, we hold tests and examinations and analysis of these examinations’ results show that for each stage the knowledge of students increased and strengthened. Of course, while analyzing we took into consideration the existing level of knowledge of students, their major and the information capacity keyed in the computer’s database. In each stage, as the progress of students improved we increased the level of requirement by giving more information that is complicated and enriched the database with new information. So, result was as we expected higher and higher, opening new opportunity to attain by students high knowledge, skills and abilities.
“Based on the needs of people it is possible to create many theories that explain their behavior. The most famous authors of such theories are A.Maslov, E.Kat, D.Mac Cleland, F.Herzburg and other scientists” [1, p. 138]. However, the application of such theories in life situations is not notable enough. Because, there is no one among these theories that has complete elaborated instructions, system and norm. Researches held on defining human features has been weighed, analyzed and evaluated through methods that are not connected with each other. Based on the observations and experiments, the measuring units for human qualities, as a rule, were recommended “table norm” and “norm on evaluating the level of education” and we used these two norms for the evaluation of the result of our experiments.
As stated above, in evaluation stage we used “table norm” in evaluating the results of each student, i.e. based on the opinion and recommendation of student’s classmates, group supervisor, relevant professors and lecturers, faculty dean and dean deputies and other relevant social movement activists of the university who knew this or another students (Exhibit 2). It shows that as the level of knowledge increases the level of being educated is going up too, i.e. as the level of software upgraded the level of education of the student improved subsequently.
Moreover, in order to learn thoroughly some topics we organized debates for students within the framework of “Discussion” debate club [2–3] and defined the level of knowledge, skills and abilities of students on the given topic according to their level of activeness in discussions.
So, as an inference from hold research and results’ experiments in the formation of socially active students I could say that return on investment is totally justified, i.e. the scope of works, spent money and time is much less in comparison with the attained knowledge by students while using our software in educational process. This technology is uniquely simple and easy in terms of controlling, monitoring and evaluating because, almost everything is performed with the use of computer technology. Another significant advantageous side of our educational technology is that it covers completely everyone and each in the group simultaneously.
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