Today is the whole world teaching foreign languages, especially English has become an essential part of education in all its' branches. We can even find two main types of English language teaching methodology like teaching English using traditional and modern methodology. But at the latest period in the whole world teachers tend to use modern methodology all the time. This becomes clear when we look at the results achieved using these two methods. As results show today modern methodology allows learns to communicate the real language rather than the traditional method. Taking into consideration this factor the government of our country is doing a lot in order to develop foreign language teaching in Uzbekistan using modern methodology. As a clear example of this we can mention the presidential decree N1875 dated December 10, 2012 "On measures of developing foreign language learning". As it is mentioned in this decree, it is important to teach foreign languages using communicative methods, which enables teachers to encourage their students to become creative learners. In this article we decided to analyze the peculiarities of both traditional and modern methodology of teaching English.
Clearly, one of the aims of any methodology in foreign language teaching is to improve the foreign language ability of the student. However, traditional methodology is based largely on a reduction on the integrated process of using a foreign language into subsets of discrete skills and areas of knowledge in isolation. Following on from this, traditional methodologies are strongly associated with the teaching of language which is used in a certain field related to the students' life or work. As stated in the book "Teaching English as a foreign language", "the recognition that many students of English need the language for specific instrumental purposes has led to the teaching of ESP-English for Special or teaching output created: they uniform the reader about "the proliferation of courses and materials being designed to teach English for science, medicine, agriculture, engineering, tourism and like " [1,9], which actually meant that the content of the course was limited to the specific vocabulary and grammar of the chosen field. For example, agricultural courses included exclusively agricultural vocabulary and all grammar was presented only in a agricultural context. Vocabulary, phrases, and sample sentences from other fields and activities, even from the realm of specifically communicative English, were excluded.
Unlike traditional methodology, modern mythology is much more student-centered. According to Jim Scrivener, the teacher's main role is to "help learning to happen" which includes "involving" students in what is going on "by enabling them to work at their own speed, by not giving long explanations, by encouraging them to participate talk, interact, do things, etc. [3,18-19]. Briefly put, the students are the most active element in this process. The teacher is here not to explain but to encourage and help students to explore, try out, make learning interesting, etc.
Though being essential, the aim of learning a foreign language according to modern methodology is still discussed, and there is a variety of possible aims. In his book "Learning Teaching", "Jim Scrivener claims, that nowadays a great emphasis is put on "communication of meaning". He also highlights the communicative competence which is, as he defines it, "being able to use the language for meaningful communication".The reason of choosing this theme is that we are interested in methods of teaching English focusing on the development of language learning skills.
Teaching should be student-centered, motivation springs from within, it can be sparked, but not imposed from without, language learning and teaching are successful when they meet student’s needs in particular circumstance, the acquired language skills must serve the students in everyday life. Language teaching and language learning are successful if they look life a cooperation process when one’s feelings, values and aspirations are revealed either at a very deep level or in surface activities such as games, simulations, dramatizations, etc.
Students should acquire knowledge of the language actively through use as experience is constantly transformed by deeds. Control of language includes the ability to understand messages and implicate them in the context. Development of language control is impossible without creativity when students experience the use of the new language as an important social skill. Various activities are related to literary, historical, philosophical, sociological or other content being studied in the language. New medium present additional opportunities for students to view and hear themselves as they attempt to us the language in authentic ways. As for testing, it shouldn’t be punitive, it should be a learning experience that is part of the on going course, involving students in working out interesting problems, being motivational and a means of growth for students. Interactive methods make it possible entrance another culture, developing are tolerance for difference without confusion of the own sense of identity. The use of interactive methods also implies taking the language and its learning out of the classroom as the world opens up throng travel, technology and shared interests. Second language learning is a developmental process. Learners use existing knowledge to make the incoming information comprehensible and they must actively use the new information, while introduction, interactive methods teacher should take into considerations students preferred learning style and to much the teaching style to achieve optimal learning in the classroom.
Thus many professionals refer to this methodology as the Communicative Language approach. Another group of authors headed by Broughton propose a different idea. They point out that foreign languages are taught "not simply for the learner to be able to write to a foreign pen friend" but to broaden his or her horizons by introducing "certain ways of thinking about time, space and quantity and attitudes towards" issues we have to face in every day life [1, 9-10]. Briefly put, some people learn a foreign language most importantly to be able to communicate with foreign people and other people learn a foreign language above all to see the world from a different point of view, to discover new approaches to life or to find out about other cultures. In modern methodology as has been highlighted about the role of pronunciation is important.
Language cannot be separated from sound. We can even say that language is sound. When we talk or when we sing we use our throats to make sounds. The throat is the center of creating the sound. Unless we are able to make sounds and to hear them properly we cannot communicate in a language, even if that is the mother tongue or a foreign tongue.
The pronunciation of the sounds in a language includes stress, rhythm and intonation. Each language has its own specific pronunciation system. In early childhood it is not difficult for us to acquire the specific intonation ad pronunciation of our native tongues. We need no formal instruction. However, it is quite different with a foreign language we want to master. The difficulty starts when the learner of a second language to the new language he/she is learning. Some sounds are similar in two languages and so they will be easily acquired. Other sounds will need more attention and so they will have to be extensively practiced until they become habits. The proper learning of pronunciation forms the basis for further success in mastering English.
The teaching of pronunciation requires on the part of the teacher several examinations and analysis. First, pronunciation cannot be learned by mere imitation by everyone. There are exceptionally talented pupils who can acquire a good pronunciation by nothing more that listening to the sound of English. But not all are that gifted. The majority of students need additional aid. They must be taught how sounds are introduced. In this way, to the checking power of the ear is added the constructive power of placing the vocal organs in certain positions, so as to produce certain sounds. The movement of the tongue cannot be seen, it is almost all the time hidden from sight. The complex and difficult utterances that make up speech up sounds can be properly reproduced by listening, imitation and especially by giving description as to their formation.
Laborious theoretical explanations should not be extensively used. Instead, short practical advice for the position of lips, tongue, the opening between the jaws etc. Should be given. In the teaching of sounds comparing them to the sounds of the mother tongue will help students realize what is similar or what is different and also what is peculiar in the English sounds. Dictionaries of English pronunciation are of great help to the teacher and student alike in learning the sounds. Explanation on the pronunciation with diagrams and phonetic transcriptions are to be found in such dictionaries. Perhaps one of the best is Daniel Jones' English Pronouncing Dictionary, which records with great accuracy the pronunciation. However, the pronunciation represented in this dictionary is that used in Southern England or heard on BBC.
Also the most comprehensive and detailed work concerning pronunciation significantly from the point of view of the foreign learner is Daniel Jones “An Outline Of English Phonetics”. This extensive work covers in detail every item concerning pronunciation, the organs of speech, experimental methods, breath and voice, stress, intonation. It contains a minute description on how to learn vowels and consonants along with a list of illustrations on organs of speech, tongue position and lip-position. That can be of a great help to the teacher.
As it concerns the phonetic transcription, Jones defines it as a clear and simple system of representing pronunciation by means of writing [2,67]. The phonetic symbols will be a precious aid for the pupils in the correct pronunciation of the words. The students should acquire the phonetic transcription to the extent that it helps them to use dictionaries. In class when the students are able to utter the sound and know its phonetic representation the sound, the teacher then arranges and presents the sounds in simple monosyllabic words and uttered repeatedly in unison and also individually. In some schools half of a century ago in Uzbekistan English class-training courses were held for acquisition of sounds before starting the language teaching. Such courses had very good results because the method used for training the auditory memory consisted in “nonsense dictation”.
First, the teacher teaches the phonetic transcription and practices the sounds. Then, he dictates meaningless words with sounds he wants to train. The pupil write what they think they hear by means of phonetic system. When they make a mistake the teacher repeats the word as he originally pronounced it and then in the way written by the pupils. He repeats the two pronunciations a number of times until the pupils hear clearly the nature of the mistake. Such ear-training classes were meant to help students in hearing the language and have impact on the acoustic impression in their memory by means of repetition.
We emphasize an overview of the time — tested (or “traditional”) classroom techniques and newer techniques that have been used to teach pronunciation. The teachers repertoire by providing an overview of newer techniques and resources available to teachers of second language pronunciation.
In addition, there suggested other fields, such as drama, psychology, speech pathology and are adapted for use in the second language classroom. Whatever their origin, these techniques may not initially appeal to all teachers, as they occasionally depart from established teaching practices and challenge such long- standing pedagogical beliefs as the following: that native like speech should be the target model, that the teacher should decide on the instructional agenda and lead instructional activities, that the sole focus of pronunciation lessons should be accuracy, and finally that instruction occurs exclusively inside the classroom. The techniques that we highlighted fall into several areas: the use of fluency-building activities as well as accuracy-oriented exercises, appeals to multisensory modes of learning, adaptation of authentic materials, and use instructional technology in the teaching of pronunciation.
As a conclusion we can say that improving pronunciation in English is a vital part of achieving fluency and mastery of a language. Include it in English lessons regardless of age or proficiency. English pronunciation activities can be a good way to engage students in a more interactive lesson while improving the clarity of their speech. These materials can be easily adapted to the teacher’s specific teaching purpose of English pronunciation.
- Celce-Murcia, M. (Ed.). (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
- Jim Scrivener. "Learning Teaching".( 2006).
- Pat Grogan. English pronunciation. Longman-London, 2000, 57 pages.
- http://www. Gov.uk/goverment/uploads/system/ uploads/attachment- data/file/194057/phonics_check_leaflet_2013,pdf