Юнус Эмре жил в Анатолии 800 лет назад. Тем не менее он не был забыт сквозь века, так как он является поэтом всех времен, а также нашего времени. Он знаменит и сегодня, так как поделился общепринятыми ценностями каждого человека.
Одной из его выдающихся особенностей является то, что он поэт-суфий. То есть, он продвинулся вперед, будучи мастером поэзии, наполнив ее символами, несмотря на религиозную идентичность. Дело в том, что он использовал этот содержательный инструмент, чтобы выразить свои исламские ценности.
Кроме того, он не обращал внимая на национальность, расу и вероисповедание человека, поскольку был слеп к цвету кожи людей. Он рассматривал все человечество без исключения как братьев и сестер. Так, его сердце было открыто каждому. Эти вышеуказанные качества сделали его бессмертным в глазах людей.
Ключевые слова: семиотика, благодаря, коннотация, использование, усиление.
To start with it would be better to give short information about historical development of semiotics. As we know semiotics or semiology is the study of signs and sign-using behaviours. That is, it is closely interested in symbols or signs.
It has a long historical duration. It goes until Ploto and Aristotle. Whilst it became a science in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the independent work of Saussure and of the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. Before that dates it was a branch of linguistics.
Symbols are the study of sign process. They can represent an event, an action, an object, a place, and so on. Furthermore, it also includes, a picture, gestures, as well. Symbol is anything which refer to another thing. By virtue of symbols we make up connections with abstract concept. The fact is that, symbos are very significant part of communication.
Using signs in poetry is a kind of literary shorthand. From time to time writers have difficulty with how to explain absract notions. Although he comprehens the concept in the name to be able to explain doubtless he appeals this way. Since being understood is essential for a writer, or else what he wrote becomes meaningless. So, in such conditons using symbols becomes indispensable. Of course, while using them some points must be taken into considerations. The education level of people, cultural background of them, their way of life, their expectations, the state they are in and konjektur as to must be taking into account. It must be remembered that eploiting from signs has various reasons.
As for Yunus Emre, he is one and most substantial representative of sufi literatüre in 13th years. He lived between 1240 -1321 in Eskişehir in central Anatolia. He received his education in vaious dervish lodges. Some of his teachers are: Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi, Hacı Bektaşı Veli, Ahi Evran-ı Veli, Taptuk Emre. However, Taptuk Emre keeps the most important place in his life. He has two books called Risalettün Nushiye and Divan. As it was guessed they are poetry books. Even today Yunus has international fame. As a reminder UNESCO declared the year 1991 as Yunus Emre Year because of his birth’s 750 anniversery. About him we can say he is not a folk poet but folk’s poet. Because he used his folk’s own language, pure Turkish language. This particularity of him precedes other qualities I think. His another outstanding particularity is using symbols very successfully as a mystic poet.
Although Yunus lived in 13. Century he wasn’t forgotten even today. From then on his popularity contuiued increasingly through centuries. Currently he is much more popular than his age. The reason for this is a few but very substantial. The fact is that these inducements made him everlasting and unforgetable. Below I will sum up these considerable reasons in short. So by this way we will have opportunity to know him.
As above mentioned he is the one and most valuable representative of sufi literature as a poet. His familiarity to sufi literature provided some advantages for him in his work. That is to say, he knows literature, sufism and islam. In addition to these qualities he is a traveller who traveeled across Asia and Anatolia. The religon of his community is not only Islam but Christian and Jewish,however, he himself is a muslim. Besides, at that age literature is very popular both as poetry and prose. Also there are very outstanding writers in his age.Such as Mevlana, Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli as to. Mevlana, Hacı Bektaş and a lot others are interested in literatura deeply, espeially in poetry. Yunus also dealt with poems like his peers. Due topaticularites I will mention below he became unforgetale in the eyes of people.
Yunus used his poem so successfully that he gave sermon to people with their own mother tongue. In addition, he addressed his folk to explain their religion with couples with metered rhymes. So he combined religion with poetry. It was the work first time done so this way of saying drew attention of people quite a lot. Because he did two jobs together integrating religion and poetry was hard to bring together and he managed it. This was very unusual for his folk. Thus, their interest increased double towards him.
On the other hand, Yunus didn’t descrminate people accorging to race, nation or religion, on the countrary, he united them under the roof of being human. He considered them all as the servant of Allah. That is, he believed in unversal values as it referred inThe Holly Book Qur’an. He declared all people from various origin brothers and sisters. We can say for him that he was a color blind sufi, a qualfied muslim and contemporary poet of all ages.
As we know, it is easy to keep poetry in memory especially rhymed ones. So did Yunus, he preffered couples to communicate. His fame arrived in today from 775 years away. It’s more likely that his reputation will overflow our age and reach next ages increasingly. Because current indicators we have in hand defend our thesis.
The points above mentioned are prominent charesteristics of Yunus. Also they made him a contemporary sufi poet of all ages. His extraordinary ability in writing poems and his religius origin as sufi also loving everybody at the degree of love, put him in the elite list.
Below I will try to explain his competence in poetry and features of his meteforical expression and symbols he employed. By this way, I want to make contributoins to his work in a way. The fact is that he is the person must be taken into consideration since his original ideas and distinctive work justify it. I will also highlight ideas about his philosophy of life. However, mostly my pursuit is his ability in writing poem and use of symbols skillfuly in poems.
In general,there are various reasons using symbols in poetry. As a literary way of shorthand it is provided by signs. In fact, signs are indispensable component of poems. Signs and poem are connected to each other tightly. Or else, without them the work becomes naked, bland and unappealing. For me symbols are as if smart clothes of a poem. This is why distinguished poets adorate their poems with extraordinary symbols. In fact, their successes lies under this fact.
Being conscious of this fact Yunus also made use of them as much as he can. Since by utilasing them he aimed to give deeper meanings to couples. Hence, signs affected his readers with mystery and arose curiosity in their heads. Having manner uniuqe to himself he managed to effect people through these symbols. Besides, by affecting the readers he wanted to leave lasting effects in their heads. For these reasons mentione above he appealed to signs.
Distinctive poets have their own way to write and language to use. So too, this is available esecially for Yunus. Related to this point he preffered to use inordinary symbols and pure Turkish language. Because being undertood was very significant for him. This is why he used Turkish which is spoken in the Street and chose symbols everybodyhas familiarity. Deapite the long time passed he is still comprehensible and famous.
Another reason of exploitation from symbols is their convenience to describtion. It’s highly difficult to describe an abstrack word,however, by way of symbolic expession words become understandable in the eyes of readers. Such as, to describe soul he likens it to a bird, for lifespan he uses the rope. As we see they are both short and effctive. There is no reason not to understand. So by this way he enriches his work and uses easy but effective language.
Furthermore, symbols increase mystery of couplets, arose curiosity on readers. This is why they read the poem again and over again. Another result is that they leave permanent effect, literally they are charmed, they make them nearly poem drun. Related to this point he uses stones syllable for grave stone, for human being he uses Alif, Lam, Mim. So while they are reading readers wonder and chew to find out their meanings.
As he is from sufi origin reigious sings overwhelmingly employed in his poetry. In addition, he invented new expression of symbols with religious objects. Maybe those exressions are new but for readers common connotations. Such as, for dervish he uses a bird flying over in the sky, for unity- see, for self -cloud and for prophet Muhammed he say -orphan and it goes on. As it was seen he has wide range of diversity of expression. He chose these metephoric language from daily life or sufi culture and from his former culture (nomadic culture) as well.
Also one of his achievement depends on couplets’ rhym and same segment. With these qualities he creats harmony like music. This kind of situation make contribution to enjoyment of readers. So people get pleasure from lines and enjoy reading. Because of this permanent pleasure of it people want to read again and over again.
Using symbolic expressions in poems has special importance from many aspects. Original poets employs orignal symbols which they own produced. In addition to this they use expressions unique the themselves. By way of reading them you can guess him from sentences he make up and from the expressions he used. Utilasing from symbols is somehing like that. Because they are their own exressions and they preffer every word spesecially. Since these metephoric expressions add differeny colours to the poetry.
On the other hand, symbols diversify the work and prevent readers from misunderstanding. Since they create picturs in their eyes so make clear abstract words. In this kind of situation to give description writer goes from known to unknown but known must be common to everybody. Yunus also followed the same path by adorating his couplets with symbols. In fact his success lies here since he managed to explain the most difficult situations with symbols. Such as, for lover he uses nightingale or candle, water symbolises humility and death is symbolised by lion paws.
As you read his poems they seem superficially simple then you think you got the meaning. However, his poems are very deep in respect of meaning. Since he uses metephoric
expressions hence, each word has a hidding meaning. Thus, he made use of connotated words as much as possible. So, if you don’t know his mission and background it would be highly hard for you to understand his intention. Because he installsmeaning to each word and so the words aren’t used in dictionary meanings also in addition they aren’t usedindiscriminatly, too.There is no doubt that the case of this kind in the poetry increasesattractiveness of work. In a way he modified complex concept to understandable level by doing so.
Yunus is a multy- cultural poet since he has sufi origin, he took education in madrasa also he travelled a lot. Having the mixture of these qualities he has a wide range of cultural accumulation. As the master of poetry he reflected all of these good particularities to his work. This is why his work is so various as theme. Moreover, as the educated writer he got lesson from elits of his age. His ability in writing poems stems from this point I think.
What is more,Yunus combined the old with new. Because in his poems there are tips about it. From time to time he gives examples from nomatic culture. Such as, horse, tent. Thus, he reflected all these cultural richness in his work. Even, sometimes he used them as metephors as well. As a result of these advantages fluent, understandable and mysterious poems come out from him.
Besides, Yunus carried sufi elements to his poetry. For people this way was first and new style. So it drew people’s attention considerably. By this way he both explained religious rules in his couplets, he gave sermons to people. So, he didn’t avoid using religious symbols in his work. By doing so he took advantage of good qualities belong to poetry. The fact is that this combination wasn’t tried before him. As a pioneer he became popular so he set an example for later poets.
Another function of symbos is that they add more significance to work. They extend the value of poem beyond its limit. When it is done well it edds an extra power or impect to your work. Symbols are reliable communication devices even in poetry since they present your work like a clear picture in minds. This is main reason why Yunus appiled to them for decription of abstract nouns.
Yunus made an effort to be understood in the line of his duty. Because of his sufi origion he felt obligated to explain the beauties of his religion and enlightened the ordinary people to teach actual realities of islam. For these reasons people had to be furnitured with factual information of islam. This is why he made effots to be comprehended. All his solicitude was just for this reason. His consideration serve this purpose.
On the other hand, a simple word in the poem turns to magical one with the use of signs. Words employed symbolically hold many layers of meanings. Despite simplicity on the surface, it is uncomplicated but in lines it turn out a magic word. Being conscious of this clue Yunus chose known words or expressins to explain the meaning of an abstract word. Although everybody knows the dictionary meaning of words but as connotation rarely anybody understands. To get secondary meaning you have to get to know him and his mission. So this way open new doors to readers and dispatch them to search, just like a puzzle. So Yunus has this dimention as well.
Also utilizing from symbols reinforces the idea of writer. In a way, he uses hidden meanings of words. That is, in terms of meaning they change so it depends on the context.
Cases like these are plenty in his couples. To get intended meaning requires effort and anxiety thus he forces them to make research. That is to say that, you are not able to find out his poems just by sitting and drinking your coffee. In a way Yunus encourages his readers to investigate for knowledge. So this side of him also must be taken into the consideration. On yhe other hand, this is a good point for him and readers who wants to discover the reality.
Words are like bricks, they build lines and then the whole poem. So in their selection necessary care is needed. While adressing people their condition must be taken into consideration. Being aware of this fact your words, theme and contition they are in all must be thought. Within in this context you must put forth your work. Or else, you won’t get the necessary use if you don’t care about these points. Thus, related to this point Yunus did do his best. His Works are clear evident of this. Since he used public language, I mean pure Tutkish language also chose symbols they know very well. So,he made up a healthy dialogue with them. Thanks to, his effort he become hero in the heart of them..
As a reminder, symbols are shorthand and convey deeper meanings. They provide easiness and clear understanding for readers. Therefore every writer, without exception, appeals to this way. Because they are highly handy and safe in respect of indicating your aim. Also they contain lasting property in the minds of readers. Accordingly, its possible to recognise it in his work even he has his own metaforical expression. Such as, scythe reap is used killing of people by Reaper (angel of death), orphen stands for Muhammed (a.s.) As we see in his poems he included those points all.
Besides, Yunus had an active penergetic,lively and dynamic personality. It’s possible to perceive this point in his poems,too. He was a sufferer because of his mission. His troubles doesn’t stem from his personal condition and they aren’t material, either. That trouble arise from histask. He himself take on this task with his own free will. His missiom was work for sake of God and using his tougue and pen in order to introduce islamic realities. So he tried to convince people to stick together the society which composed of different nations and religions. As a result he managed it, too. Today his popularity all over the world is clear evident of it. İn this way the only tool he used was his poems adorned with symbols.
As a result, Yunus climbed the pick of poetry writing as a master of his profession. He managed to do it by putting symbols into the service of poetry with his ability. In our age how you are saying is as important as what you are saying. Even, at times former precedes latter or vice verse. What deal is to make up balance between these two criterias. As we evaulate Yunus in respect of these points we recognize equilibrium. They are both in harmony in Yunus together. We can say that this superiority lies under his high grade personality.
Even today, when we read his poems we take great pleasure from them.logically only explanation of this is his being contemporaryness of every age. Really, he is the poet of every age. Although a long time has passed since his dead he is as contemporarypeers as of today. Again this kind of condition stem from his ultra ability in writing and uniting ideas and contemporary way of thinking. These quailties made him eternal and unforgetable in respect of poetry art or else, he couldn’t be so popular.
Yunus was fortunate since he livedtogether with prominent pioners in his age. Such as,Mevlaha, Hacıbektaş-ı Veli, Taptuk Emre. Since he took lesson from them. Therefore, they each had an exclusive place in his heart. Also we can say he took advantage of them adequately. However,Tapduk emre was exception. Yunus had ability to be great so they made him necessary contriution. Thus, the experinces with them he lived carried him to success. Afterwards, he left them behind and became world famous writer.When we look back his personality he was affected by them a great deal. In fact, his mastery in poem; playing with symbols, fluent language, sufi culture etc. are the consequence of his education. However, other than this education Yunus improved himself in great deal and became king of symboliclanguage.
Meanwhile, writing poem was his way of life. As the stick to this point, he was so keen to poetry that he slept with poem, woke up with poem and mumbled lines of couplets while he was walking. So much so that poetry filled all his life. Poem was the most meaningful part of his life. Under these condition his achievement was imminent I think. All in all, he consumed his energy in this way. So, this status mustn’t be ignored while evaluating him. One of other reasons which carried him todays from 775 years is this pecularity. He focused on his work and he produced imminant poems as a result. Like handcrafted handle adored, couples embellished with symbols came out.
Symbols were magical stick in his hand. Even he employed them extraorninarily in every coulpe. Since they provide easy way of communication, they changed the unknown to known with ease. Because of these reasons he made use of them as much as he can.Also readers were getting great pleasure with reading them because they found themselves in his poetry. So they read and have others read. This is his another different particularity.
Yunus led a simple life, just like an ordinary person. While his term’s elitists wrote Persian, he wrote his poems with pure Turkish. That is, he was always with his folk, he produced for them as well. The simplicity of his work stem from this idea. For him art is for people, not people are for art thus, he supported this idea. In connecton with this he chose symbols which are known by them. In addition he mde effort to enligten them with his metaphoric language.
He aimed to illuminate people in the field of their religion islam. Again, by adorating his couples with symbols he furnished them with islamic knowledge in an enjoyable way. Since a plenty of signs create interest in their minds like a puzzle so they wondered about it and found out the answer as a result. So Yunus was one of them and spoke like them and wrote for them. This tendincy made him unforgetableat present.
As a consequence, Yunus Emre is a gorgeous poet of all ages without doubt. Besides, he is the master of using symbols in poetry. In addition, as exceptional personality he managed to integrate religious values with poetry. Moreover, he addressed ordinry citizens and spoke their pure language. Also, his struggle; writing poems, using symbolic language, vocabularies he used all was to light up his folk.
In responce, his citisens also found out his value because they transfered his poems to new generations. Thus, they immortalize him that after 775 years by raising his popularity. Today not only Turkish people but also the whole world recognized his value. If we sum up, as it was mentioned above, he played a leading role in many aspects: using his own lsnguage in his work, combing sufi expression with poetry, as such. Especially in our age we are strongly in need of unifying ideology disregarding people’s race, nationality, country and ideology as Yunus accomplish centures ago.
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- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiotics Wikipedia
- www.reference.com › World View › Symbolism
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia