Alterglobalism as an alternative to the neoliberal model of globalization
Лопаткина Е. А., Порожняк Н. Ф. Alterglobalism as an alternative to the neoliberal model of globalization // Молодой ученый. 2016. №18. С. 267-268. URL https://moluch.ru/archive/122/33542/ (дата обращения: 19.01.2018).
In today's world where happens rapid change of the economic and social imperatives, as well as an increase of the global problems severity (the threat of terrorism, uncontrolled migration, etc.), there newly grows a question of globalization essence and its importance in the development of modern society.
The views on the globalization’s origin are a source of endless debates. Thus, politicians attributed its emergence to democratic institutions development. Cultural scientists suggest that globalization owes its origins to the Westernization of culture. The economists point out that the emergence of the term linked with the process of markets trans-nationalization.
The approaches to the understanding of globalization are quite different. There are economic, political and technological methods for understanding this process. There are economic globalization and political globalization. As the globalization subject there regionalization appears which gives a powerful cumulative effect for the world's geo-economic poles formation.
The term «globalization» which was put into circulation relatively recently, in the mid-80s, according to A. V. Weber is a «symbol of some new reality generated by technological revolution in the field of computer science and telecommunications» .
Media, various publications and magazines often mention such a term as a model of neoliberal globalization. According to the geo-economic vocabulary by Dergachev, neoliberal globalization is «the internationalization of the economic, political and cultural life of mankind, accompanied by ignoring many civilizational imperatives» .
It should be emphasized that this term is pretty contradictory process. On the one hand, such a process opens up new opportunities for development. Particularly, it provides a global division of labor and world cooperation. That allows information flows «to blur» in the world, providing with information even small towns. On the other hand, this model of globalization leads to a tendency of problem’s extension. There is an exacerbation of existing conflicts and the aggravation of the world’s contrasts.
What are the main threats and dangers has the neo-liberal model of globalization?
Firstly, this is an asymmetrical character of the wealth concentration. The gap between developed countries (predominantly these are countries of the «golden billion») and the developing countries is growing every year. All economic levers are intended for cooperation prosperous countries. The countries with the least capable resource base are left for their own care. Thus, globalization requires cooperation of those countries that have the most extensive wealth.
Secondly, neoliberal globalization condones the widening of various government institutions which are the guise of real leverage capable for problem resolution. Thus, according to A. V. Weber: «neo-liberal globalization dilutes the principle of democratic governance. It creates new extraterritorial sources of power, the epitome of which is the concentrated power of the international financial institutions, transnational corporations, stock exchanges and other global market institutions» .
Thirdly, the policy of «open market» has been successfully used by criminal structures. Here we should remember the problem of migration policy. Every year ten thousand of migrants flock abroad for so-called «better life». This is done in direct violation of the law (migrants try by all means to circumvent immigration policy). Looking for a job in another country, often illegally, they contribute to the capacity assets of informal sector. «Out of Africa alone to European Union there have been immigrated 4, 6 million of people» . Migration Policy Institute estimates that there are eight millions of illegal African immigrants living in the European Union» . It should be noted that illegal immigrants somehow involved in the sector of the shadow economy because they have no formal right to work in the recipient country.
Unemployment feeds the criminal business. Illegal migrants are divided into two types: one obtain illegal work, the second turn into criminal business. Illegal trafficking in drugs, weapons and psychotropic substances is actively supported by broad layers of illegal migrants.
The movement which has positioned itself as an alternative to the neoliberal model of globalization is alterglobalism.
Alterglobalism is a social movement that emerged in the twentieth century. It aims to find alternative ways of globalization.
«Alterglobalists reject the European-American liberal model of globalization. They believe that it is not fully contributes to the development of human values, such as the environment, social justice, health and safety, protection of indigenous cultures and human rights. Alterglobalists try to find other ways for development. They agree that the process of unification of the world is objective. But they reject the global power of capital when transnational corporations are transformed into force which is comparable to state’s powers». 
Unlike antiglobalization, alterglobalism does not consider globalization as an absolutely negative process. On the contrary, representatives of alterglobalism see in globalization the way to resolve global problems. For example, by cooperation it is possible to solve one of the greatest problems of humanity — terrorism. Alterglobalists carefully avoid such labels as pejorative and deleterious effects of globalization.
Instead, the representatives of this concept see their movement «as an alternative to what they call neo-liberal globalization whereby international institutions (the World Trade Organization, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, etc.) and major corporations are working to enrich the developed world almost oblivious to the harmful effects of their actions on people and the environment in less developed countries». 
If we compare the concepts of neoliberal globalists and alterglobalists, we note that the second one do not ignore important universal civilizational imperatives, such as the requirement of maintaining the environment and preserving the continuity of nations. Alterglobalists do not deny the importance of the world uniting but they do not concentrate their attention on the fact that transnational corporations should have a force equal to the state’s power.
What are the social changes suggested by the representatives of alterglobalism?
They mean the creation of a global welfare state with the corresponding functions and the regulatory authorities.
Functions of such state are:
− Regulation of the environmental component (environmental programs, the formation of the Assembly on the nature and peace, the protection of non-renewable natural resources);
− Regulation of the social sphere (establishment of minimum social base for the world’s inhabitants. The base should include such components as health, access to education, work organization, social welfare);
− Control of TNCs;
− An international guarantee of citizen’s rights.
Thus, alterglobalism is the golden mean between the concepts of antiglobalization whose representatives deny the existence of globalization and representatives of the neoliberal model of globalization who see globalization as a method of enrichment at any cost. The alternative theory takes into account the interests of the world’s uniting, but they do not forget about the interests of developing countries, as well as do not lose of sight the most important demands of the civilized society.
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