Use of information technologies in the educational process of the school
Дмитриенко Н. А., Михнова Е. Г. Use of information technologies in the educational process of the school // Молодой ученый. 2016. №16. С. 336-338.
Modern society is involved in the general historical process called informatization. This process includes the availability of all citizens to sources of information, the penetration of information technology in scientific, industrial, social sphere, a high level of information services. The processes taking place in connection with the computerization of society, not only contribute to accelerating scientific and technological progress, the intellectualization of all human activities, but also the creation of a qualitatively new information society environment that ensures the development of human creativity.
One of the priorities of the process of informatization of modern society is the informatization of education, which is a system of methods, processes, software and hardware tools that are integrated with the aim of collecting, processing, storage, distribution and use of information for the benefit of its customers. The goal of informatization is the intensification of the global intellectual property through the use of new information technologies: computer and telecommunication.
Information technology provides the ability to:
– to rationally organize the cognitive activity of students in the educational process;
– make learning more effective by involving all kinds of sensory perception of the student in the multimedia context and intelligence arming new conceptual tools;
– build an open education system that ensures every individual his own path of learning;
– engage in active learning process of the children category, differing abilities and learning styles;
– use of the specific properties of a computer, allowing to individualize the learning process and seek fundamentally new cognitive tools;
– intensifying at all levels of the educational process.
The main educational value of information technology in that they allow you to create infinitely more vivid multisensory interactive learning environment with an almost unlimited potential opportunities, and is at the disposal of the teacher and the student. In contrast to conventional means of training information technology can not only satiate a lot of student knowledge and develop intellectual, creative abilities of students, and their ability to independently acquire new knowledge, to work with different sources of information.
«... In the 21st century, digital media are the natural environment for intellectual work to the same extent that the writing was for centuries previous». With this statement a scientist and teacher S. Papert agree many teachers and people working in the field of education. Therefore, currently much attention is paid to informatization of education, which is understood as a change of content, forms and methods of teaching, the entire way of life of the school through the use of ICT tools and integration with traditional education.
To solve this problem the school must have the necessary information and technical resources. The concentration of modern means of training contributes to the modernization and improvement of the educational process, stimulates mental activity of students, promotes creativity of teachers.
Urgent tasks of school today are:
– creation of a unified information environment of educational institution;
– the development of principles and methods the use of modern information and communication technologies, and their integration into the educational process in order to improve the quality of education.
– analysis and expertise, the organization spread educational information through publishing, audiovisual programs, electronic mail; organization of information flows;
– the formation and development of information culture of students, teachers and managerial personnel.
– preparation of a unified information system users.
The expediency of the use the information technologies in educational process is determined by the fact that with their help the most effectively implemented such didactic principles as the scientific, accessibility, visibility, awareness and activity of trainees, an individual approach to learning, a combination of methods, forms and means of instruction, knowledge acquisition strength, skills and skills, socialization of the student.
In contrast to conventional means of training information technology can not only satiate a lot of student knowledge and develop intellectual, creative abilities of students, and their ability to independently acquire new knowledge, to work with different sources of information.
There are eight types of computer tools used in teaching based on their functional purpose (for A. V. Dvoretskaya):
- Presentation — Electronic slide shows that can include animation, audio and video clips, interactive elements. To create a presentation using software such as PowerPoint or Open Impress. These computer tools are interesting in that they can create any teacher who has access to a personal computer, and with a minimum amount of time to develop the tools for creating presentations. Application presentation extends the range of conditions for the creative activity of pupils, and psychological growth of the individual, developing independence and raising self-esteem. Presentations are widely used for demonstration of student projects.
- Electronic Encyclopedia — are analogs to conventional reference and information publications — encyclopedias, dictionaries, reference books, etc. To create such encyclopedias used hypertext systems Hypertext Markup Language, for example, HTML. Unlike their paper counterparts they have additional features and capabilities:
– they usually support a convenient search engine for keywords and concepts;
– convenient navigation system on the basis of hyperlinks;
– the ability to include audio and video clips.
- Didactic materials — collections of tasks, dictations, exercises, and examples of papers and essays submitted in electronic form, usually in the form of a simple set of text files in doc, txt, and combined into a logical structure of hypertext tools.
- Program simulators serve as teaching materials and can track the progress of decisions and report bugs.
- Virtual Experiment System — a software package allowing the student to conduct experiments in a «virtual laboratory». Their main advantage — they allow the student to carry out such experiments, which in reality would be impossible for reasons of safety, timing, etc. The main drawback of these programs — the natural limitations inherent in their model, beyond which the learner can not go out in the framework of the virtual experiment.
- Software Knowledge Control Systems, which include questionnaires and tests. Their main advantage — quick convenient, impartial and automated processing of the results. The main drawback — inflexible system response that prevents the subject show their creativity.
- Electronic textbooks and courses — are combined into a single set all or some of the types described above. For example, the student is invited to view the first training course (presentation), and then put down the virtual experiment based on the knowledge obtained by viewing the training course (virtual experiment system). Often at this stage the student is available as an electronic reference book / encyclopedia for students of the course, and finally he must answer a set of questions and / or to solve some problems (software knowledge control system).
- Educational games and educational programs — is an interactive program with the gaming scenario. Performing a variety of tasks in the game, children develop fine motor skills, spatial imagination, memory, and may receive additional skills, for example, are trained to work on the keyboard.
There are the following types of lessons according to the method of use of information technologies (for A. G. Kozlenko):
- Lessons on which the computer is used in demo mode — one computer at the teacher's desk and projector;
- Lessons on which the computer is used in an individual mode — a lesson in the computer room without access to the Internet;
- Lessons on which the computer is used individually remotely — a lesson in the computer lab with Internet access.
Computer learning tools can be divided into two groups in relation to the resources of the Internet:
– Learning Tools on-line are applied in real time using the Internet resources;
– training facilities off-line — it is the means used independently.
At the initial stage of information technologies were introduced at the lessons of learning new knowledge, when it is necessary to use a large amount of visual material.
Then, information technologies have been introduced to generalize the lessons, when it is important not only to systematize the knowledgs and skills of students, but also focus on the most important points of the subject needed to study or follow the courses. When purchasing a mobile computer class have the opportunity to use a computer for laboratory work and experimentation. The use of this electronic product possible at all stages of the lesson: test of knowledge, learning new material, fixing material.
In individual mode with students who want to study the subject in depth, and is working with other types of computer equipment. This electronic textbooks and encyclopedias, software simulators to prepare for the exams, which are in addition to the results and provide an explanation of the correct answer, the virtual experiment system, educational games.
The educational process of the computer can be both an object of study, as well as a means of training, development, and diagnostics of mastering learning content, there are two possible ways of using computer technology in the learning process. The first — the assimilation of knowledge’s and skills leading to the realization of computer technology, the formation of skills they use in solving various problems. The second — the computer technology is a powerful tool to improve the organization of the educational process. But today, decided, at least two additional functions: the computer as a communication tool, the computer as a tool in the management and the computer as a developing environment. The educational process is important to the simultaneous use of all of these areas. The existence and interaction of all of them at the same time, not only in education but also in the educational process leads to the desired result, which is placed in front of the school community.
As a result of the use of information technology was the observed dynamics of the quality of students' knowledge, increase motivation of educational activity.
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