The Tropes in Advertisements and Editorials in English Newspaper and Magazine Articles
Матчанов М. Р., Каландарова М. Б. The Tropes in Advertisements and Editorials in English Newspaper and Magazine Articles // Молодой ученый. 2016. №15.3. С. 6-8.
By this article we are going to discuss the types of trops which are common for newspaper and magazines.
Figures of speech,ortropes, rhetorical figures, or stylistic means of a language (the term used by I. R. Galperin, V. A. Kukharenko, and other Soviet linguists (see Bibliography) dealing with stylistics) are particular patterns and arrangements of thought that help to make literary works effective, persuasive, and forceful.
a)Phonetic SDs (alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme, and rhythm);
b) Lexical SDs and EMs
1) Based on the interaction of the dictionary and contextual meanings (metaphor and its subtype (personification), metonymy and its subtypes (antonomasia, synecdoche), and irony);
2) Based on the interaction of primary and derivative logical meanings (polysemy, zeugma, and pun);
3) Based on the interaction of logical and emotive meanings (interjections, oxymoron, and epithet);
4) Based on the interaction of logical and nominative meanings (simile, periphrasis, euphemism, hyperbole, and understatement);
c) Syntactical SDs and EMs (climax, anticlimax, antithesis, attachment, asyndeton, polysyndeton, break-in-the-narrative, chiasmus, detachment, ellipsis, enumeration, litotes, parallel constructions, question-in-the-narrative, represented speech, rhetorical questions, suspense, inversion, and repetition).
What is advertizement?
Newspaper advertising has been around longer than any other form of advertising we see today and is still the first kind of advertising that businesses think about doing. These ads can do a lot more than just advertise one item or one sale--each one can work really hard to bring in customers, and then bring them back again and again. They're a good way to reach a large number of people, especially those aged 45-plus who tend to read the paper more frequently than younger demographic groups who tend to get their news from television, radio or the internet. And you can target your ads to the appropriate markets by requesting that your ads run in the section(s) that most closely relate to your target audience, be it sports, lifestyle or business. Like all forms of advertising, your print ad costs will depend on a lot of things: the size of your ad(s), what publication(s) you use, what sections of the paper(s) you want your ads in, the frequency with which you run the ads, and whether you use color in your ads. When it comes to working with the publication, you'll have a different sales representative from each newspaper who will not only quote you prices and deadlines but will also help you design your add. When it comes to price, daily papers are the costliest of your choices and are best handled with annual contracts, since these publications make committing to one ad at a time cost prohibitive-rates plunge dramatically even for the smallest contract, compared to the one-time rate. If you find dailies to be too expensive, you can save money by only running your ads in the local sections the dailies all provide to their subscribers. These are tabloid-like sections that usually run just one day a week and carry news pertaining to small geographic areas or neighborhoods. For instance, the Post Standard in Syracuse, New York, carries its local publication, called «Neighbors», on Thursdays. This local section is inserted into the appropriate daily papers and distributed to the various suburbs of Syracuse, instead of to the paper's entire coverage area. If your business was based in the Syracuse area, you could choose to run your ad in just «Neighbors East» or «Neighbors West» in order to target your business's neighborhood. As you grow, you would probably want to consider purchasing ad space in the local section aimed at another area along with, not instead of, your original area of coverage. When you look at a paper, you'll see it's divided into columns. Your newspaper ads are sized according to a very set formula: a certain number of columns wide and a certain number of inches long. Multiplying the two numbers together will give you the number of «column inches» of your ad, which determines the ad's cost. For example, because you'll pay a specific dollar quantity «per column inch», if your ad covers three columns in width and is five inches long (15 column inches), and you're paying $30 a column inch, that ad will cost you $450.00 (15 column inches X $30.00). This is true for print ads in any newspaper, whether it's daily or weekly.
Editorials in newspapers and magazines
An editorial, leading article (US) or leader (UK), is an opinion piece written by the senior editorial staff or publisher of a newspaper, magazine, or any other written document. Editorials may be supposed to reflect the opinion of the periodical. In Australian and major United States newspapers, such as The New York Times and The Boston Globe, editorials are often classified under the heading «opinion». Illustrated editorials may appear in the form of editorial cartoons. Typically, a newspaper's editorial board evaluates which issues are important for their readership to know the newspaper's opinion. Editorials are typically published on a dedicated page, called the editorial page, which often features letters to the editor from members of the public; the page opposite this page is called the op-ed page and frequently contains opinion pieces by writers not directly affiliated with the publication. However, a newspaper may choose to publish an editorial on the front page. In the English language press, this is done rarely and only on topics considered especially important; it is more common, however, in some European countries such as Spain, Italy, and France. In the field of fashion publishing, the term has been adapted to refer to photo-editorials — features with often full-page photographs on a particular theme, designer, model or other single topic, with or (as a photo-essay) without accompanying text.
Why do journalists use stylistic devices in publicist style
The publicist style is used in public speeches and printed public works which are addressed to a broad audience and devoted to important social or political events, public problems of cultural or moral character. It falls into three varieties, each having its own distinctive features. Unlike other formal styles, the publicist style has spoken varieties, in particular, the oratorical sub-style. The development of radio and television has brought into being a new spoken variety — the radio and television commentary. The other two are the essay and articles in newspapers, journals and magazines. The general aim of the publicist style is to exert influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essay or article not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well.
One of the stylistic devices is Interjections.
Interjections are words expressing emotions, such as surprise, anger, pleasure, regret, indignation, encouragement, triumph, etc. They are used as exclamations. Some interjections are special words which are not associated with any other parts of speech, e.g. Oh [ou], ah [a:], eh [ei], aha [a’ha:], alas, fie, humph, hum, phew, pshaw, pooh, bravo, hurrah, etc. Some of these interjections serve to express quite definite feelings.
Thus alas is a cry of sorrow or anxiety; bravo is a cry of approval, meaning well done, excellent; hurrah is a cry ofexpressing joy, welcome; fie, pooh, and pshaw express dislike; etc.
Interjections can be divided into primary and derivative. Primary interjections are generally devoid of any logical meaning. Derivative interjections may retain a modicum of logical meaning, though this is always suppressed by the volume of emotive meaning. Oh! Ah! Bah! Pooh! Gosh! Hush! Alas! Are primary interjections, though some of them once had logical meaning? Heavens! Good gracious! Dear me! God! Come on! Look here! Dear! God knows! Bless me! And many others of this kind are not interjections as such a better name for them would be exclamatory words generally used as interjections; their function is that of the interjection
E.g. Günter Engross • Herbert Puchta
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The next style is — Italics
Italics [i'tæliks] — sloping letters used for the following purposes:
— To show foreign words that is considered alien for the text.
E.g.: I want to tell you something tête-à–tête.
— To produce the effect of emphasis.
E.g.: Now listen, Ed, stop that, now. I’m desperate. I am desperate, Ed, do you hear? (Th. Dreiser)
Italics always go together with the full form of the words usually written in the contracted form, as in the example given above.
The difference in type means the difference in intonation, which in its turn shows different feelings and emotions.
Cf.: You are a baby, Robert.
You are a baby, Robert. (J. B. Priestley) The second example sounds more affectionate.
You are a ratter, Stanton.
You are a ratter, Stanton. (J. B. Priestley) The first example sounds not so furious.
The next style is Metaphors
A metaphor is a relation between dictionary and contextual logical meaning based on the affinity or similarity of certain properties or features of the two corresponding concepts.
Metaphor like all stylistic devices can be classified according to their degree of unexpectedness. Thus metaphors which are absolutely unexpected are quite unpredictable, are called genuine metaphor.
1. I. R. Galperin. Stylistics. Higher School Publishing House. Moscow 1971.
2. Suleymanov M. D. Yusupova Sh. A. Safayeva D. Sh. Lecture of Stylistics. Samarkand-2005.
3. L. T. Boboxonova. Ingliz tili stilistikasi. Toshkent 1995.
4. English_ Teaching_ professional_ 2012_no 80, 81
5. English_ Teaching _professional_2014_no 91, 92, 94
6. English_ Teaching _professional_2013_no80, 83
7. Kukharenko, V. A. Seminars in Style. — Moscow: Higher School Publishing House, 1971. — 184p.