Teaching vocabulary — the basis for forming four main skills
Рузметова Д. А. Teaching vocabulary — the basis for forming four main skills // Молодой ученый. 2016. №15.3. С. 15-17.
The degree of the President Republic of Uzbekistan PD-1875 as of 10 December 2012, “On Measures on Further Improvement of teaching of Foreign Languages”, was the essence of the country`s reforms in the field of foreign language learning. Since the adoption of the system-generating decree all the work in this area has been intensified and major reforms in modernization of teaching foreign languages at all levels continuous education have started.
Nowadays in communicative — cognitive approach vocabulary competence is very important for communication in a FL; it is impossible to read, write, speak or listen without knowledge of vocabulary. Practice and theory of FL shows that the importance of teaching/learning vocabulary can hardly be overvalued. As many teachers of FL reading comprehension will attest, when their students are faced with an unfamiliar text in the foreign language, the first challenge seems to be its vocabulary. When the text has many new words, students are in despair and seem to be discouraged. When the vocabulary of the text is more familiar, students are more likely to continue with the reading task. There are many methods teachers use to teach vocabulary or to encourage vocabulary self-learning by their students. Rogova G.B (1992) and Jalolov J. J (1996) distinguish between incidental and intentional vocabulary learning. They claim that both approaches are present in FL learning, since students learn vocabulary intentionally as part of course requirements but also gain knowledge of words incidentally through their reading.
To know a language means to master its structure and words. Thus, vocabulary one of the aspects of the language to be taught in school. The problem is what words and idioms pupils should retain. It is evident that the number of words should be limited because pupils have only 2–4 periods a week; the size of the group is not small enough to provide each pupil with practice in speaking; schools are not yet fully equipped with special laboratories for individual language learning. The number of words pupils should acquire in school depends wholly on the syllabus requirements. The later are determined by the condition and method used. For example, experiments have proved that the use of programmed instruction for vocabulary learning allows us to increase the number of the words to be learned since pupils are able to assimilate them while working independently with the program.
We know the following fact that
I — words used in reading, II — words used in auding, III — words used in speaking,
IV — words used in writing.
The main aim of teaching vocabulary is assimilation of the meaning, form of the words and its usage in oral and written speech — that is formation of lexical habits. People can have many aptitudes, but without a large and precise English vocabulary to express them, they cannot take full advantage of these abilities. Unlike aptitudes, vocabulary is not a natural ability; it can be improved if one is willing to make the effort to do so. Building vocabulary is a powerful way to enhance your life and career. Learning how to build a better vocabulary can be a pleasurable and profitable investment of both your time and effort. At least fifteen minutes a day of concentrated study on a regular basis can bring about a rapid improvement in your vocabulary skills, which in turn can increase your ability to communicate by writing, conversing, or making speeches. Acquiring a large vocabulary can benefit you in school, at work, and socially. It will enable you to understand others' ideas better and to have the satisfaction of getting your thoughts and ideas across more effectively. Of course, you already know thousands of words, and you will continue to learn more whether you work at it or not. The fact is that many of the words you know were probably learned simply by coming across them often enough in your reading, in conversation, and even while watching television. But increasing the pace of your learning requires a consistent, dedicated approach. If you learned only one new word a day for the next three years, you would have over a thousand new words in your vocabulary. However, if you decided right now to learn ten new words a day, in one year you would have added over three thousand to what you already know, and probably have established a lifetime habit of learning and self-improvement.
The techniques of teaching vocabulary in the classroom
Perhaps the most important factor in a successful vocabulary-building program is motivation. It will be very difficult for you to study words month after month without a strong feeling that it is worth doing, that a larger vocabulary will help you in school and on the job, and that it can well lead to a more exciting and fulfilling life. For the first according to the topic of our research paper we identify four basic steps to a better vocabulary:
1. Be Aware of Words 2. Read 3. Use a Dictionary 4. Study and Review Regularly
While there are not any magic shortcuts to learning words, the larger your vocabulary becomes, the easier it will be to connect a new word with words you already know, and thus remember its meaning.
1. Be Aware of Words
Many people are surprised when they are told they have small vocabularies. “But I read all the time!” they protest. This shows that reading alone may not be enough to make you learn new words. When we read a novel, for instance, there is usually a strong urge to get on with the story and skip over unfamiliar or perhaps vaguely known words. But while it is obvious when a word is totally unknown to you, you have to be especially aware of words that seem familiar to you but whose precise meanings you may not really know. Instead of avoiding these words, you will need to take a closer look at them. First, try to guess at a word's meaning from its context—that is, the sense of the passage in which it appears; second, if you have a dictionary on hand, look up the word's meaning immediately. This may slow down your reading somewhat, but your improved understanding of each new word will eventually speed your learning of other words, making reading easier. Make a daily practice of noting words of interest to you for further study whenever you are reading, listening to the radio, talking to friends, or watching television.
When you have become more aware of words, reading is the next important step to increasing your knowledge of words, because that is how you will find most of the words you should be learning. It is also the best way to check on words you have already learned. When you come across a word you have recently studied, and you understand it, that proves you have learned its meaning. What should you read? Whatever interests you—whatever make you want to read. If you like sports, read the sports page of the newspapers; read magazines like Sports Illustrated; read books about your favorite athletes. If you are interested in interior decorating, read a magazine like House Beautiful—read it, don't just look at the photographs. Often people with very low vocabularies don't enjoy reading at all. It's more of a chore for them than a pleasure because they don't understand many of the words. If this is the way you feel about reading, try reading easier things. Newspapers are usually easier than magazines; a magazine like Reader's Digest is easier to read than The Atlantic Monthly. There is no point in trying to read something you simply are not able to understand or are not interested in. The important idea is to find things to read you can enjoy, and to read as often and as much as possible with the idea of learning new words always in mind
3. Use a Dictionary
Most people know how to use a dictionary to look up a word's meaning. Here are some pointers on how to do this as a part of a vocabulary-building program:
– Have your own dictionary
Keep it where you usually do your reading at home. You are more likely to use it if you do not have to get it from another room. At work, there may be a good dictionary available for your use. At home, most people do not have a big, unabridged dictionary; however, one of the smaller collegiate dictionaries would be fine to start with.
– Circle the words you look up
After you have done this for a while, your eye will naturally move to the words you have circled whenever you flip through the dictionary. This will give you a quick form of review.
– Read the entire entry for the word you look up
Remember, words can have more than one meaning, and the meaning you need for the word you are looking up may not be the first one given in your dictionary. Even if it is, the other meanings of the word will help you understand the different ways the word is used. Also, the word's history, usually given near the beginning of the entry, can often give a fascinating picture of the way the word has developed its current meaning. This will add to the pleasure of learning the word as well as help you remember it.
4. Study and Review Regularly
Once you have begun looking up words and you know which ones to study, vocabulary building is simply a matter of reviewing the words regularly until you fix them in your memory. This is best done by setting aside a specific amount of time each day for vocabulary study. During that time you can look up new words you have noted during the day and review old words you are in the process of learning. Set a goal for the number of words you would like to learn and by what date, and arrange your schedule accordingly. Fifteen minutes a day will bring better results than half an hour once a week or so. However, if half an hour a week is all the time you have to spare, start with that. You may find more time later on, and you will be moving in the right direction. Teaching a word does not cause its automatic learning by the students. That is one of the first things teachers realize when they start teaching. It would be wonderful if finishing a unit of the course book meant that the students master all the words in it. Unfortunately, a lot of work (recycling, vocabulary notebooks keeping, memory techniques...) has to be done before students thoroughly know a word. The activities which follow have been tested on students and provide a practical suggestion for a systematic approach to vocabulary learning.
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