Logistical approach of cotton supply chain in Uzbekistan
Бабаджанов У. К. Logistical approach of cotton supply chain in Uzbekistan // Молодой ученый. 2016. №14. С. 310-313.
Cotton is the main material for clothes but given the inherent complexity, do we know how cotton clothes are generated? In this article we overlook the main processes in Cotton supply chain from the cotton fiber to the clothes industry. Producing pure cotton clothes are largely discussed problem usually from the pricing, quality and consumer value perspectives. In every processes of cotton to clothes supply chain, cotton cloth is tried to save its quality and advantage among the textile industry. We comment the issues from the point of quality assurance of the textile industry trough customer judgment and satisfaction. A number of points need to be made about this supply chain as they will be important at the end of the every stages. The first is how consumer satisfaction, with flow feedback a major driver of the whole chain from farm to processing of fabric at the very end. This means that final clothes costs and quality as well as productivity are key drivers in the cotton supply chain. Finally the supply chain depends significantly on consumers pick, making a quality fabric an important determinant of the cost structure. In the end of supply chain consumers always take main part of this process significantly.
It is significant to go step by step further in this supply chain analysis with the aid of the following Figure 1.
Figure. 1. Cotton Supply Chain
COLLECTING TO TERMINAL— As of today, the modern ginnery represents a complex scenario of the branch cotton network consisting of ginneries, exterior procuring and storing centers. In the conventional technology of raw cotton processing in Uzbekistan, its manual warehousing and storage in stacks is specific. This kind of technology of raw cotton store up applied in the Republic of Uzbekistan. 
DRYING AND CLEANING— The process of drying is the most important part of stage before ginning. The moisture content of seed cotton is very important in the ginning process. Seed cotton with too high a moisture content will not clean or gin properly and will not easily separate into single locks but will form wads that may choke and damage gin machinery or entirely stop the ginning process. Fiber length preservation can best be attained with fiber moisture of 6.5 %–8 %, but both cleaning efficiency and ginning rate are reduced at higher moistures. Process of raw cotton cleaning is terminated in the raw cotton cleaner for removing fine trash. 
GINNING AND PRESSING— The principal function of the cotton gin is to separate lint from seed and produce the highest total monetary return for the resulting lint, seeds, etc. under the prevailing marketing conditions. Ginning is an important transfer point in the cotton supply chain.
Ginning sector acts as bridge between the stage of cotton raw materials of farmer field and the stage of preparation raw materials of textile industry. Ginning process of cotton plays a significant role in determining the quality of raw material textile and clothing industry. Process of ginning converts cotton into cotton lint and seed.
YARN SPINNER— In today’s highly competitive and incredibly global textile market, a spinning mill cotton remain competitive and survive if it dose not produce a quality yarn in a cost effective way, which will in turn produce high quality woven and knitted fabrics.
There are three main spinning system used commercially to produce cotton and other short staple yarn: Ring spinning; Rotor spinning; Air jet spinning (including Vortex spinning).
PRETREATMENT— Making quality clothes always requires special process called after pretreatment. It is a process that always must be done before dyeing, printing, and etc. In general we call it pretreatment. In the pretreatment process fiber is always checked, and there are two kind of pretreatment of cotton products for using of next process: Typical, Objective.
DYEING AND PRINTING— The process of dyeing and printing adds high value in the cotton supply chain, because the end consumers pay attention cloths not only its quality but also its color. Dyeing gives the textile its color. Both natural and man made dyes are used, along with other processing chemicals that must be washed out after dyeing and printing. As such, the dyeing and printing process uses a lot of water, energy and chemicals.
KNITTING— is one of the fabric manufacturing techniques in which yarn is converted into loops and loops are intermeshed to farm fabric. Cotton knitted fabric is used as raw material for the manufacture of garments and knitwear. Generally, hosiery yarn of count 20s-40s is being used for the manufacture of knitted fabric. Knitwear’s are manufactured out of knitted fabrics mainly due to its softer feeling, bulkiness, and good draping quality etc. The quality of knitted fabric mainly depends on raw material quality; therefore quality yarn must be used for the manufacture of knitted cloth.
WEAVING — is the oldest method of making yarn into fabric. Traditionally, cloth was woven by a wooden shuttle that moved horizontally back and forth across the loom, interlacing the filling yarn with the horizontally, lengthwise warp yarn.
FINISHING— As the term implies, is the final step in fabric production. Hundreds of finishes can be applied to textiles, and the methods of application are as varied as the finishes. In general, the term «Finishing» applies to all of the operations both chemical and physical carried out to the fabric after all application of textile industry.
DESIGN AND CUTTING— Domestic apparel market can be divided into three different categories:
- Fashion products;
- Seasonal products;
- Basic products.
Men’s and children’s merchandise usually fall into the basic category, while women’s merchandise dominates seasonal and fashion categories, showing the importance of fashion and resulting frequent design changes in the women’s market. 
SEWING— Cotton fibers don’t shrink, but cotton fabric does, so preshrink the yardage. To preshrink, wash the fabric the same way you intend to launder the finished garment. When sewing the fabrics, sometimes it is difficult to know the right side of the fabric that is why, marking the wrong side with chalk to avoid confusion and a finished garment with shading differences.
The ultimate look of the garment depends on how the patterned parts are attached together by means of sewing. Sewing can be classified into two groups and they are following: Hand sewing; Machine sewing.
PACKAGING — is also the main process in the cotton supply chain and it adds value to the products. The design of package can be simple, complex and special, depending on the user’s need. Actually, the production department uses the pack as a reference and guide for bulk manufacturing. Once a package has received final approval, its use is manifold. A process at its early stage with some interesting measures packaging is a key element of the supply chain.
LABELING— is any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label. There are close to 100 different labels in the textile industry addressing to environmental, social sustainability, or consumers’ health. This standard assesses the chemical use and handling, water use and disposal, exhaust air production, dust and noise generation, energy consumption and general workplace conditions and it requires an environmental management system to be in place. Its main function is to inform customers about the product’s contents and give directions for its use and it consist of three kinds of labels: Brand; Descriptive; Grade.
WAREHOUSE — is a storage structure constructed for the protection of the quality and quantity of the stored produce. The need for a warehouse arises due to the time gap between production and consumption of products. There are three kinds of warehouses: Private, Public, Bonded.
WHOLESALERS — may be defined as the middleman who operates between the producers and the retailers. Wholesaler refers to any individual or business firm selling goods in relatively large quantities to buyers (retailers) other than the ultimate consumers. Thus the manufacturers who sell their products directly to retailers may also be regarded as wholesalers. The wholesalers provide important services and solve the problems of both the manufacturers and the retailers.
RETAILERS — refers to all the transactions which involve sale of goods or services to the ultimate consumers. A retailer is a middleman who procures goods from the wholesalers and sells it to the final consumers. They form a vital link in the channel of distribution of products without it, neither because the products would sell to distant places nor would it be possible for consumers to buy goods of their choice in shops located nearby. They have a much stronger personal relationship with the consumers and deal directly with the people of varied tastes and temperaments. They form the last link in the supply chain and give the final selling price to the product. The retailers provide important services and solve the problems of the manufacturers and wholesalers on one hand and the consumers on the other hand.
CONSUMERS— The main contribution of the cotton supply chain to the development of produces for cotton apparel consumers were the determination of the strong salience of the percentage cotton garments in blends for specific segments of consumers. The «made in» information given on clothes labels is not nearly enough to enable us to retrace the route taken by cotton before it reaches consumers wardrobes. Its itinerary is often extremely complex: Cotton maybe grown in one country, woven in another, before being made into clothes in a third, which are then exported to yet another. To satisfy consumer demand for transparency, some clothing brands provide a little map with their products, showing the route taken from field to factory.
Creation of central simple of retailer that covers all products and gives a visual reading to all consumers, designers and manufactures of the impact of various products, and care of them, will educate and allow all parties to make more informed decisions.
For any business reviewing it’s sustainable and responsibility credentials it is imperative to fully understand advice consumers of best practices once products have been sold, while also ensuring the continuity of future sales.
- Бабаджанов У. К. Cotton fiber supply chain in Uzbekistan: logistic approach // Молодойученый. — 2016. — № 13.
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- The Wall Street Journal (2007b), «Fashion Journal: Spotting the Next Hoodie — Fashion Increasingly Relies on Trends from the Streets; Spying Raccoon Hats in SOHO», March 29.