Text translator of scientific and technical nature now, with the growing interest in improving knowledge about individual specific areas of natural and humanitarian sciences, information wisely and the need for terminological clarification in the framework interlingual communication, there is a need for a professional approach to handling specialized vocabulary and terminology in general.
Constantly emerging new concepts and phenomena cause an identifiable need in their exact understanding and interpretation, sensitivity to individual specifics in use multivalued and synonyms of words, meanings of words to specialization and standardization translated equivalents. In the face of access to information from specialized areas, due to the need for their adequate mediation in the field of multi/interlingual communication, are faced with issues of specific terminology translation fields of medicine and health, relevant to the category of special areas scientific and technical translation. And so, increasingly, there is a situation in which the translator must be attentive to highly specialized issues, and forced to keep on the professional level: [1, р. 46]
− natural and latest trends research and information processing (online electronic dictionaries, terminology basics and memory SAT programs, consultations with doctors, comparing multilingual mutations of the translations of the same text, for example: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/)
− increased education on general medical issues and health care, with subsequent specialization in selected industries:
Medicine: preventive (sanitary, hygiene, m. dezinfektology, epidemiology, school of public health) clinical (area: therapy, pediatrics, psychiatry, surgery, dietetics, gerontology; topics: cardiology, neurology, endocrinology, ophthalmology, dentistry, urology);
Pharmacology, pharmaceutics (area: pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacy sections: clinical, molecular, pharmacogenomics, experimental s.);
Medic branch (anatomy, statistics, cytology, embryology, histology, genetics, immunology, infectology, microbiology, neurobiology, pathology, physiology, radiobiology, toxicology, etc.);
individual interdisciplinary field of Medicine (aviation medicine, arctic medicine, military medicine, space medicine, accidents medicine, laser medicine, underwater sports medicine, judicial medicine, labor medicine, palliative medicine, evolutionary medicine.)
− the emergence of new medical terms (multifunctional and solo intervention by persons caring for ill-translated into Russian language intervention)
− new technological methods in the prevention, diagnosis and therapy
− organ and systemic diseases.
− fashionable terms for cosmetic issues,
− pharmaceutical issues, pharmacological and pharmacotherapeutic and addition in terms of their chemical structure (chemical nomenclature and terminology translation chemicals),
− emergence and transfer of new medical names of diseases, eponyms, symptoms of diseases, diagnostic techniques, therapies, medical institutes and institutions, medical and therapeutic institutions, rehabilitation centers, etc., different types of abbreviations of their names and abbreviator,
− urgent medical issues, which serve materials and reports of medical conferences, magazines, consultations with experts, abstracts, publications, dictionaries, congresses medicine, doctors, etc.),
− relevant examples of medical records (e.g., hospital discharge summary (e. Stage, e. e. transferable, posthumous), history, magazines, medical statement on the status of the health of the patient from an outpatient or inpatient's medical card map of hospital (olden history), history of development of the child and etc.).
Equally important is the need to differentiate «target group», i.e. the addressee communicative partners in medical discourse, intended for perception, understanding and interpreting information on medical and health issues. Tipology texts medical discourse in four main types of proposed (1981) later augmented version «Arzt-Patienten-Kommunikation: Analyses zoo».
Differentiation of types medical text Löning implements depending on the degree of specialization communication partners and target text or intentionality communication:
- Communication partners: Professional level-professional level (specialist physician-specialist physician)
The purpose of communications: translation skills on a parallel level
Style: scientific medical texts with special terminology
Text type: research papers, magazines, lectures
- Communication partners: Professional level-semi-professional level (doctor of medicine-student nurses (high, medium, Deputy of the author)
The purpose of communication: transfer of basic knowledge
Text type: textbooks, manuals, monographs
- Communication partners: Professional level-unprofessional level (doctor-patient)
The purpose of communication: education, medical theory and medical practice
Style: education, methodology
Text type: tutorials and instructions for patient education
- Communication partners: Professional level-unprofessional level (journalist-recipient).
The purpose of communication: initiation of interest in health issues and health issues.
Style: popular-scientific texts
Text type: articles in newspapers, magazines on health, healthy nutrition, etc. [2, р. 88]
On the classification and drawing up profiles of target communication group medical discourse can be exploded and the types of medical translation, types of texts of medical discourse, depending on their functional and stylistic features that are designed for a specific group recipients. Medical translation is done by oral or written and thus, there is mind implementing broadcast both oral and written. Comparing level of specialty and degree of mastery of the issue you can define a medical translation as semi-professional and professional. A written medical discourse is characterized by a lack emotion, expressivity, objective assessment, the rigidity of the judgment and a high level of terminology. Among the different kind of medical instruments can be distinguished by their discourse genres right proportional to the dependents of the addressee:
- Medicine in scientific discourse (clinical trials and their analysis, article, book review, tutorial on special issues designed to doctors-physicians and nurses, the reports on symposia, conferences, congresses, specialist doctors).
- Special medical documentation (procedural map, analysis of material, the patient's ambulatory coupon, excerpt of outpatient medical records, hospital, accounting log procedures book house call recorder card appointment to see a doctor, Journal of preventive vaccination, sanatorium-resort card, the history of the development of newborn health certificate birth certificate, medical certificate of death receptor lank, diary ambulance station operation, setting the doctor-consultant, history childbirth, act of forensic chemical studies (recipe act forensic chemical studies, the history of olezni, medical information, act of forensic histological examination, operational log, direction the forensic laboratory, etc.).
- Unprofessional, ordinary medical issues (communication everyday, popular magazines on medicine, health articles cosmetic issues (cosmetic clinic, services, clinics) [2, р. 115]
Faux amiss in medical translation.
It is clear from the foregoing that the translation of text from the field of science, characteristic of highly specialized terminology requires professional an interpreter who speaks a foreign language, along with the special terminology the translated text. Translator implemented by «medical» or translation of medical texts, which occupies a special place among scientific and technical translation, always requires a lookup information in relation to the task force, i.e. for any recipients intended target translate. With this fact also involved formal aspect of translation and its realization content: otherwise will understand text with specialized medical recipient terminology without medical training (the patient) and the specialist physician. Hetaerae humanism est., in the translation of medical documentation should be avoid inaccuracies and obscurities, even incorrectly listed equivalents.
Translations of a similar nature, therefore, must comply with highly qualified translators with training and special medical education, the medical system includes terminology and terminology of other sciences (Microbiology, radiology, chemistry, physics, engineering, etc.). And so, from medical terminology should be understood as special text with special termin system the interdisciplinary nature translation which must be objective, accurate, true passing the idea the original. [2, р. 58]
Commissioners selects mostly five regulatory requirements respect to translation in general: norm equivalence translation, genre and stylistic standards of translation, speech translation rules, pragmatic rules translation and conventional norms of translation (Commissioners, 2002). When this cannot be forget that for full-fledged interpretation of the ideas of the original text is not it is allowed to breach any of the rules, especially rules of equivalence, since it provides the need for possibly semantic commonality of the original and the target texts.
- «Проблематика перевода медицинских терминов», NicoletaMertova.
- Юлия Вячеславовна Дацкевич, Ольга Викторовна Зубкова. Многоязычный словарь медико-биологических терминов и понятий (русский, английский, немецкий, французский язык) – Нижний Новгород, 2010.