The comparison of the lingua-cultural idioms that are commonly used in English, uzbek and russian languages
Yuldasheva Zaynab Kamilovna,
The idiom is a group of words whose meaning as a group is different from the meaning those words would have if you considered each one separately. Idiomatic units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech; they exist in the language as ready-made units. N. M. Rayevskaya defines idiom (idiomatic phrase) as «a phrase, developing a meaning which cannot be readily analyzed into the several semantic elements which would ordinarily be expressed by the words making up the phrase. It transcends the ordinary syntactic patterns and must be studied as an indivisible entity, in itself». The following idioms which are commonly used in English culture have their equivalents in Uzbek and Russian languages.
Above average expresses the meaning to be higher or better than the average. Ex: His intelligence is clearly above average. The Uzbek version is «Kichkina demang bizni ko’tarib uramiz sizni». If we analyze it grammatically, in Uzbek version the plural form of pronoun «we» is used instead of «I» as it is «Biz» and «Siz».
Chin up— this idiom is used for somebody who has changed his character towards someonemafter having a great amount of money. Ex: It was impossible not having seen me at the street; I thought that she was chin up. The Uzbek equivalents are:
- Burni ko’tarilib qolmoq it was accepted as a translation of this idiom, but chin means «yanoq», hence, using «nose» in Uzbek language variant.
- Ko’zini yog’ bosdi.
- Ko’zini shira bosdi. So let’s make so discussion about using the word «ko’z» as it’s eye in English. The eyes are the single part of head functions to see all. When something in your eyes it’s hard to see and you may not notice the things or people.
As cool as acucumber means to be a calm and not agitated; with one’s wits about one. Ex: During the fire the homeowner was as cool as a cucumber. Again here the green color is associated with its meaning as envies, a jealousy. There are many variants in Uzbek language: «Yuragi daryodek keng», «Daryo toshsa to’pig’iga chiqmaydi», «Dunyoni suv bossa to’pig’iga chiqmaydi». All of them express one meaning. The Russian versions are: «широкая натура» «Ему море по колено», «А ему и горя мало».
All talk and no action is used for somebody who talks about doing something, but never actually doing it. Ex: Bill keeps saying he’ll get a job soon, but he’s at all talk and no action. In Uzbek we say «Aravani quruq olib qochadi», «Qulog’iga lag’mon ilmoq», «Quloqqa tepmoq».
Some Uzbek idioms have very strong exaggeration rather than English: As different as night and day- it means something or somebody is completely different. Ex: Although Bobby and Billy are twins, they are as different as night and day. The Uzbek variant of it «Yer bilan osmonchalik farqi bor», which has a high rate of exaggeration. The Russian form of it: «Как небо и земля. Дистанция огромного размера». As you see the Uzbek and Russian versions are the same. «Holiga maymunlar yig’laydi», the Russian version is «Хоть волком вой». This idiom is used to threaten somebody that bad thing will happen to him and his situation will be very bad even can’t imagine it. Actually the monkey doesn’t cry, it only laughs and does other activities. In order to show the hard time this idiom is used. Some Uzbek idioms have both figurative and literal meaning for ex: «Qovun tushirmoq», «Tarvuzi qo’ltig’idan tushmoq» in figurative meaning they’re idioms, but in literal meaning they are simple sentences. The English equivalent is: Lay an egg (for people) to give a bad performance. Ex: I hope I don’t lay an egg when it’s my turn to sing. To express the detailed analyze of something the Uzbek language used the following idioms: «ipidan ignasigacha, miridan sirigacha, qilidan quyrug’igacha», but the English form is one: learn something from the bottom up – to learn something thoroughly, from the very beginning; to learn all aspects of something even the least important ones. Ex: I learned my business from the bottom up. There are many idioms in Uzbek languages using the word «Qil» in Uzbek «a hear» in English language: «Qildan qiyiq axtarmoq» the synonym version of it «Tirnoq ichidan kir qidirmoq», the English equivalent is: Arguing for the sake of arguing and arguing for the sake of argument. Ex: you are just arguing for the sake of arguing. You don’t even know what the issue is. The next one is also connected to those idioms: As thick as thieves means to be very close friend with somebody, very close-knit, friendly. Ex: Mary, Tom, and Sally are as thick as thieves. They go everywhere together. Uzbek eq: «Orasidan qil o’tmas dugonalar». This is also one type of exaggeration, because you can hardly see a hear as it «qil» in Uzbek and all of this shows very close relationship with somebody. The word «thieves» used in English idiom because as it’s clear the thieves are very mysterious, and keeps everything secretly. The Uzbek idiom is «Ko’ngliga qil ham sig’maydigan» which means very upset and hasn’t got English equivalent.
There are some Uzbek idioms that can only show the lingua cultural aspect of the language. They are not existed in other languages. Only the Uzbek culture uses them: They all express Uzbek national food «Osh» or you can also say «Palov» and «Chuchvara»:
- Osh bo’lsin (totli bo’sin). Ex: Ovqat juda shirin bo’libdi oyijon rahmat. Osh bo’lsin bolam dedi oyisi. The Russians say «Приятногоаппетита» as its Bound Appetite in English language (it was taken from French language).
- O’dirsa ham osh o’ldirsin it means that if you die from the food let it be the food «osh» because it’s very delicious meal even you agree to die.
- Ko’ribsan-ki osh, ko’tarmagin bosh. Ex: Rahmatlik dadam: «Ko’ribsanki osh, ko’tarmagin bosh» derdilar. Biz ovqatga qolganda, tog’a, kattalikni bilmaymiz: to’g’ri kelsa qo’lda, to’g’ri kelsa qoshiqda tushuraveramiz». [1; 76]
- Pulingdan bir tiyin qolsa ham osh ye, umringdan bir kun qolsa ham osh ye.
- Dushmaning seni tosh bilan ursa sen uni osh bilan ur. Sometimes the word «osh» can mean to general all meals: «Oshga tushgan pashshadek», the Russian equivalent is «Третийлишний» which is nowadays used in Uzbek languages by youth too. The English equivalent of this idiom is «It takes two to tango» «Oshing halol bo’lsa ko’chada ich» is Uzbek proverb. «Oshdan tosh chiqdi»: «Lekin oshdan tosh chiqdi, ko’zdan achchiq yosh chiqdi. Oy yuziga qo’ndi dog’, toptaldi ishq degan bog’ [B. Boyqobulov, «Samarqand»]. The word salt as it is «tuz» in Uzbek language also has general meaning of food: «Tuz totganim yo’q» which means ate nothing. «Osh tuzimni yeb yana menga xiyonat qildi», «Tuzini yeb tuzug’iga tupurmoq» (yani xiyonat qilmoq). According to the Uzbek Tradition when bridegroom comes home while somebody is laying the table and putting the national food «palov» on the table and says «Qaynonangiz yaxshi ko’rar ekan osh suzahayotgan edim». There is also one metaphorical use using the word «osh», and «do’ppi»: «Do’ppidek qilib osh poki palov pishirmoq». This expression means both the shape and the littleness of it. Moreover, there are many idioms in Uzbek language using the tradition cloth of «Do’ppi» as it’s translated as a skullcap. «Do’ppisi tor keldi» – this idiom means to express the time that everything should be decided. The synonym version is «Oy tuynikka, arava eshikka kelganda yoki taqillaganda», and Russian equivalents are:«Ох, тяжелаты, шапкаМономаха (А. С. Пушкин), «Житьзаднимумом». The next one is «Do’ppisini osmonga otmoq» means to be very happy. Example of use: Bu yilning planlarini bajarsak ham do’ppimizni osmonga otardik». «Do’ppisi yarimta», «kosasi oqarmaydi», «biri ikki bo’lmaydi», «Qo’li kaltalik qilmoq», all mean to have not enough money even somebody works hard. The English used as «Hard(tough) row to hoe». Example of use: (Ustaning ishi yirik, uning noni butun, do’ppisi yarimta.) The Russian version is «Важуре. Делаидут, конторапишет.» The next idiom also show the Uzbek mentality: «Do’ppini olib qo’yib bir o’ylamoq», ex: «Otang to’g’risida bu fikr-mulohazalarimni bundoq do’ppingni olib qo’yib bir o’ylab ko’rsang, o’ylab ko’rib, bu xavfning oldini olishga yordam bersang.» The Russian version is «Раскинутьумом». The proverb «Bosh omon bo’lsa do’ppi topiladi» is widely used in Uzbek culture. The Uzbek idiom «To’nini teskari kiymoq» is also one of the most favorable that shows culture and tradition. There is also one national food is used in Uzbek idioms: «Chuchvarani xom sanamoq» (misunderstanding or hope unreal thing): Nigora: «Men maoshimga tush, lak, pamada, krem…Farmon Bibi: «Bo’ldi, bo’ldi…».
Nigora: «Shularni olmoqchi edim, qarasam chuchvarani xom sanabman» [2; 56].
In some contexts the idiom «Tarvuzi qo’ltigidan tushdi» can be synonym for that idiom. It also expresses the sadness when you planned to do something but couldn’t afford do it. In this kind of situation this idiom is used in Uzbek culture. The idiom «Qulog’iga lag’mon ilmoq» means to tell a lie and persuade somebody with full of lies. The word «lag’mon» is Uzbek’s national food. The English equivalent of this idiom is to pull somebody’s leg. The following Uzbek idioms with deep analyze are about the relationship between Mother-in-law and bride: «Qaynona va kelin tuprog’i bir joydan olinar» – it means they have similar characters, after time passes the bride also will be as her Mother-in-law in the future. «Kelinning tilini qaynona chiqarar» – it means that bride answers back to her Mother-in-law according to her sentences. «Kelin kelmay to’rvani to’g’irla» – The word «to’rva» means the condition of the family in this idiom and means to prepare well before coming new bride to your house. «Kelin qaynonaning supurgisi» – means the bride is the servant of her Mother-in-law. «Kelin bilan qaynona o’t bilan suv» – as it’s known that these two things have contradiction with each other. «Kelin bo’yini yashirar, tovushin tovdan oshirar» – means that brides do many things in secret relying on their husbands. The following Uzbek proverbs are also in use in Uzbek culture:
− Kelinni kelganda ko’r sarpasini yoyganda ko’r.
− Kelin kirgan uyga nur kirar.
− Qizim sen eshit, kelinim sen tingla.
− Qaynonali kelin qarqara kelin, qaynonasiz kelin masxara kelin.
− Kelinimning yig’lagani – Eshshagimning hangragani.
− Katta kelin uyda, kichik kelin-toyda kelin kelsa uzoqdan, arba-arba osh kelar, kelin kelsa yaqindan arba-arba so’z kelar.
- The Uzbek-Russian short idioms dictionary. M. Abdurahimov: Tashkent, «O’quvchi», 1980.
- Said Ahmad «Kelinlar Qo’zg’oloni»
- Dean Curry. Illustrated American Idioms. — United States Information Agency Washington, D. C.
- Macmillan English Dictionary 2nd edition. — London: Cambridge press. 2004.