The history of the first press-lithography in Central Asia
Матьякубова М. М., Отамуротова Р. О., Отамуротов Д. О. The history of the first press-lithography in Central Asia // Молодой ученый. 2016. №10. С. 1101-1102.
Muhammad Rahimkhan II Feruz is in history as the Khan raised social — literary, cultural environment of the top science. Muhammad Rahimkhan II Feruz, who has a good work not only in the history of the dethronement, but also an important event in the history of Central Asia was founded in lithography. It is essential to state that A. A. Semenov described lithography in Khiva, and it should be called the rare event of emergency. Lithography is an Greek word, «Lito» and «Grafos» — which means I write. This term is used as «Toshbosma» in Uzbek [4, р. 103]. In East the first printing appeared in Iran in 1832 and a number of books were published. In 1886, seven ones in Tabriz, in Tehran ten ones appears and the number of lithography has been established to increase and quickly. Feruz gathered the part of this period of enlightened scientists and scholars at the palace library, this library is presented in different parts of the world as rare, and it is known to us. The works of poets gathered in the palace of months, years, relocation requires a lot of time. At that time all the books are moved manually by master calligraphers. Therefore, Feruz sent Huja, Kamil Khwarizmi, Khudaybergan to centers of the city, and tried to establish publishing work [4, р. 103].
The occurrence of lithography entered history as the first and only printing in Central Asia. Muhammad Rahimkhan II Feruz initiative of the palace in the form of books kept in the library of rare manuscripts published in Iran in 1874 for the purpose of lithography equipment was brought to Khiva. Iranian special print Ibrahim Sultan to his work as an expert in lithography to carry out preliminary work for the first time [1, р. 97], Tabibiy was appointed as head of the sections. Ibrahim Sultan had a difficulty in new lithography to work alone, employed Otajon Abdalov as a worker. Initially, in lithography some of the documents began to be published. After finishing agreement with Ibrahim Sultan, he went to Iran and entrusted all things, and responsibility to Otajon Abdalov. Dethronement of the Otajon Abdalov continued to print rare books as the successor of the work independently. At first not sailing of books originally published in a prominent scholar of his day, and was presented as a gift to the library Khan of Khiva, thinkers and the school to the public. Printing thousands of books published in more than forty names, literary, artistic, religious content [5, р. 100–102].
Revolution sun (Inqilob Quyoshi) newspaper reported on May 5, 1924, issue of the first printing of Khorezm Otajon Abdalov (known under the name of the «Otajonbosma») have been reported, but this article is met with Abdullah Boltaev, the publishing history and its organizers to correct quite a lot of information given in this article. Therefore, Abdullah Boltaev published an article by adding a little more fully which was known as the Truth of Khorezm (Xorazm Haqiqati) with the title of the «First Presser» on February 10, 1965. A. Boltaev in article, he says: «most people called me Otajon press (so people call him like that in order to work in lithography) became familiar with his life and more reliable sources of information about the activities of research» . According to the information of A. Boltaev Otajon Abdalov was born in the district of Khorezm Yangiariqin 1856. He first disciple to the lithography discovered in Khiva in 1874, and worked there for 14 years. During this period, the Khiva joined Russia, after the opening of Russian schools in Khiva Abdalov learned to read Russian.
In 1873, Petro-Alexandrovsky (Turtkul) in the Russian-native school. Lithography work, as mentioned above, the Iranian master Ibrahim Sultan learned as an apprentice. Ibrahim Sultan was expert on the work of the printing press, he was also a good calligrapher. In particular, Ibrahim Sultan copied «Xazoinul-maoniy» for text print. Russian orientalist B. B. Bartol'd, G. N. Chabrov, Ye. K. Betger. Uzbek historian R. Mahmudova, M. Rustamov A. Boboxonov, F. Ernazarov informed about Khiva lithography. Unique in the history of Central Asia Printing Khan of Khiva Muhammad Rahimkhan II Feruz Palace of the «Podshohi zamon tipolitografiya» the first to publish the text of the works for the old Uzbek moved manually on paper clearly. In this respect, calligraphers are going to work and contribute to it. Each of the print edition of the manuscript even learned to read the contents of the proposed publication after reading that work. Then the text was copied to«toshqolip». With the help of «Toshqolip» 500–600 copies of books are available to copy. The East Literature text typing main purpose was close as possible to the views of the author of the text [7, р. 33].
Manuscripts handwritten by scribes in the work of the Secretary-General and made changes in the form and content of the works conducted in the form of revenge [7, р. 31]. According to research published A. Erkinov manuscripts are divided into 4. This is a copy of the text of the original edition, published kept the original letter published transcription transliteration newspapers. Apart analysis, we summarize the work of many of the publications that keep the letter considered for publication. A. N. Samoylovich stated as a witness that lithography was moved to «Tozabog'» Rakhimhon’s house in 1908. During this period Xudayberganmuhrkan washed for that . In Khiva two presses were in active. The first printing was established during the time of the King Muhammad Rahimkhan II Feruz and it was called «Podshohi zamon tipolitografiyasi» [4, р. 103]. Oasis in the second printing Petro-Alexandrovsky (Turtkul) S. V. Novikov printing. The press also published its structure and products are no different from other small-time press printing [2, р. 114]. Unique in the history of Central Asia Printing Khan of Khiva Muhammad Rahimkhan II Feruz Palace. Lithographs of Khiva literary environment has a repertoire of works published in anthologies, office and pentagons. Literary books published today are kept in the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan and in various libraries. Central Asia is the only organization of Khiva lithography printing dethronement of cultural life development. Then the number of printing increased.
The beginning of the XX century in Central Asia for 90 printings were available. The researchers of A. Boboxonov were 25 Printing in Tashkent, Samarkand 16, Kokand 14, Ashgabat 5, Namangan 8, Andijan, Bukhara, Ferghana 4 ones, Kattakurgan, Qizilarvat Petro-Alexandrovsky, Shymkent, Khujand, Khiva 1 printing [2, р. 96]. According to published manuscripts can be divided into 4 types: a copy of the text of the original edition, published kept the original letter published transcription transliteration newspapers. Apart analysis, we summarize the work of many of the publications that keep the letter considered for publication. To date, the first printing of Khiva there are different opinions about the product. Many studies in the palace of «Podshohi zamon tipolografiyasi» time in 1876. Abu Nasr al-Farohiy's work was «Nisobus – sibiyon» (Bolalar nasibasi), a work of philosophy, it was said [4, р. 103]. Other studies such as Ye. K. Betger and G. N. Chabrov published in the printing of the first product in 1880 was Alisher Navoi’s «Hamsa». Yes, it was really the order of the Feruz in 1880 to copy «Hayratul-abror» Alisher Navoi's «Hamsa».
This was the biggest event in the history of the culture of Central Asia. In Turkestan newspaper, calling this event a number of articles have been published. Published books in Khiva lithography spread among the masses of the people, as well as the development of cultural and educational works of art inspired by the works of new scientists and writers prepared motivation. The creation of Khiva lithography manuscripts did not end the transfer. During this period, Khiva calligraphy by rare historical artifacts, manuscripts, translations, and moved to the office. In Khiva, Muhammad Rahimkhan II had significant role and contribution to this in a growing number of manuscripts and printed publications.
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