The position of Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz in the cultural, educational life of the Khiva Khanate
Матьякубова М. М., Бекчанова Х. Д. The position of Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz in the cultural, educational life of the Khiva Khanate // Молодой ученый. 2016. №10. С. 1474-1477.
At the end of XIX and at the beginning of XX centuries in the Khiva khanate architecture, construction, all types of handicraft and literature, art, translation art, calligraphy, book art, composer’s profession, rank art developed in a high level. Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz used to organize a book-reading, mushoira parties (mushoira-reciting poems) twice in a week, like his father Sayyid Mukhammadkhon. He began to practice writing ghazals by following poets such as Ogakhiy, Bayoniy, Komil Mirzo. After reading his ghazals Komil suggested that the khan should have a pen-name «Feruz». He used to arrange poetic competitions, rank evenings. Bayoni described his love to Feruz’s poetry in his book «Shajarai Khorezmshokhi» as following: «Khan was interested in poetry. He wrote poems with a pen-name Feruz and told them in mushoira. He indulged in poetry. If anybody had capability of telling poems, the khan invited them to the mushoira evenings.
Bobojon Tarroh-Khodim wrote in his book «Khorezm navozandalari» that Feruz became announcer in poetry evenings, told his ghazals which were newly written, he called for other poets to write new ghazals. That is why in the mushoira evenings 50–60 ghazals were written in answer to 1–2 ghazals which were newly written. As a result information was written, it was about that most of manuscripts, collection of works, memoirs belonged to poets such as Ogahi, Komil Khorezmi, Bayoni, Mirzo, Tabibi, Chokar, Roji, Komyob, Murodi, Nodim, Oqil, Gozi, Asad, Sodiq, Sadi. A. N. Samoylovich who came to Khiva in 1908 and they wrote about many poets, historians, artists who were busy with creative work in Mukhammad Rakhimxon II Feruz’s palace, he described them as following: «Among poets there were representatives of the khan family, such as palace functionary Karimdor yasovulboshi, Yusufbek, head of Urgench city Shayx Nazarboy and others.»
According to Feruz’s instruction, the poets of Khiva formed special collection of works from their pentagons, hexagons. The poets of Khorezm wrote pentagons devoted to Alisher Navoi’s works and wrote a special collection of works. The collection of works was written in 1907 by Mukhammad Yakub Devon. There were 100 poems of Shahi, 82 of Khayoli, 30 of Mahmud and other 15 poets of khorzmian which were written in Arabic and Persian. According to Feruz’s order scribe Mukhammad Yakub Devon wrote another collection of works in 1908, it consisted of poems of 29 khorezmian poets and the poems of Uzbek, Tajik, Turk, Tatar, Azerbaijani poets. In literary environment of Khiva there were special kinds of collection of works such as «Bayozi mussadasot», «Bayozi majmuaia shor», «Bayozi mukhammasot», «Bayozi ruboiyot», «Bayozi ashor». In the period of creation of these books scribes such as Mulla Boltaniyaz kharrot, Mulla Karimbergan devon, ustod Mukhammad Panoh, Khudaybergan Muhrkan, father-son Matyakub and Mukhammad Yusuf, Komiljon Ismoil ugli, Khodim, Tabibi, Nodim made a valuable contribution.
The book «Khorezm navozandalari» by the head of poets of Khiva palace Bobojon Tarrokh Azizov-Khodim (it was about the life and creative activities of 31 poets who acted in literary environment of Khiva), the book «The lives of poets and writers of Khiva» of Khasanmurod qori Mukhammadamin ugli Lafasi (this book was about creative activities of 51 poets and writers who worked at law court of Khiva khan Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz’s palace, according to the order of Feruz poets who translated many books from Arabic, Persian into Uzbek, the book «Majmuai uttiz shuaro shohiy payraviy Feruz» (in the book there was valuable information about 33 poets who were active in the literary, social environment in the reign of Feruz). These books informed us about literature, art, the development of culture and social environment of Khorezm at the end of XIX- at the beginning of XX centuries and Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz’s attention to poetry, amateurs of literature, art. The leader of poets of palace, poet, translator Lafasi described Feruz and his literary, cultural circle in his memoirs «The lives of poets and writers of Khiva» as following: «Feruz concerned with literature, he wrote ghazals, mukhammas under the pen-name Feruz. Also, Feruz was interested in music, 5–10 musicians always played tambour, ghijjak musical instruments and sang attractive songs in front of Feruz. That’s why according to Feruz’s wishes additional ghazals, mukhammas, musaddas, satire were written. There were always 30–40 poets, lovers of literature in front of Feruz, some of them did secretarial duties, wrote and translate books. «As stated above literature, art, culture developed with the initiative of Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz. Firstly, Feruz was edifying for others, collected famous poets, scientists, musicians, singers and he continued his literary-scientific activity with them. Thanks to the investigations like analyzing books which belonged to literary environment of Khiva, we can tell the names of poets, such as Nosir Tura, poet Sodiq, Saidgozi, Mukhammad Yusuf Bayozi, poet Mirzo, poet Piri Komil, poet Yusuf Xoji Okhun, poet Ojiz Xudaybergan Okhun, poet Ibodulla Panokh Okhun, poet Mukhammad Sharif Okhun, poet Otaniyaz Qori Boboniyaz Okhun, poet Khabibulla, poet Rogib, poet Devoni, poet Mutrib Khonakharob, poet Akhamdjan Tabibi, poet Avaz Utar, poet Nodim, poet Mulla Yusuf Qoramonli, poet Mukhammad Niyaz Makhsum as poets who worked effectively in the Khiva Khanate. They are considered great representatives of literary environment of the Khanate. In the reign of Feruz literature, art flourished in Khorezm. In Central Asia first lithography was organized, house of rank was built and Khorezm Translation School was founded under the leadership of Feruz. About 100 poets and scribes were invited to the palace and library which consisting of more than 1000 books was founded.
Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz tried to create prosperous life for his people and to equip the country with services and utilities. As a result Khiva changed into one of the most beautiful cities in the world. A lot of rare architectural buildings, palace, caravan Sarai, row of bazaar stalls, mosque, madrasa, minaret, interior chamber of a mosque and mausoleums, new irrigation constructions were built, ruined buildings were reconstructed. Bayoni appraised Feruz’s works in his chronicle and said buildings were the result of his actions. In the end of XIX century in the period of Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz peculiar were high development processes were happened in the cultural life of the Khiva khanate. He attended cultural development, creation, beauty and importantly, ruling the government. As a proof of this fact we may tell more than 20 mosques, madrasa, minarets and ways which were built in the end of XIX-at the beginning of XX centuries. Tura Murad minaret (1888), Bikajonbika minaret (1894), Polvon Qori madrasa (1905), Kozi Kalon madrasa (1905), Polvon gate (1906), Islom Khuja madrasa and minaret (1910–1911) and other architectural monuments were built under the leadership and the protection of Feruz.
According to the information, in the early years of XIX century in Ichan Kal’a there were 17 mosques, 22 madrasa, caravanserai and a big bazaar except the palace of khan. At the beginning of XX century the number of mosques was 93 and 63 madrasas in Khiva.
Academic Yakhyo Gulamov informed us in his monograph «Monuments of Khiva city» that at the end of XIX-at the beginning of XX centuries in Khiva 36 madrasas were built. It is known there were all together 130 madrasas, 1636 mosques in Khiva at the beginning of XX. This fact informed us that in a little period in Khanate there emerged big architectural monuments and at the beginning of XX century in Khiva architectural constructions were developed. As we mentioned above, many kinds of architectural constructions were developed and a peculiar architectural school was founded in the reign of Feruz. In the book «Shajarai Khorezmshokhi» of Bayoni, these facts were mentioned; Many madrasas, mosques were built and he was caused of the creation of many buildings, one building was built by Mukhammad Murod devonbegi and Kadam yasovulboshi, Ibrokhimkhuja Yusuf yasovulboshi, Khusayn Mukhammadboy, Dost Olim, All-Koziuquzzotu qozi, each of them had madrasas built. All of these constructions were erected under the leadership of Feruz. Mukhammad Rakhimkhon II Feruz tried for prosperous life of his people and equipping with services and utilities of the country. As a result Khiva changed into one of the most beautiful cities in the world. A lot of rare architectural buildings, palace, caravanserai, row of bazaar stalls, mosque, medrese, minaret, interior chamber of a mosque and mausoleums, new irrigation constructions were built, ruined buildings were reconstructed. Bayoni appraised Feruz’s works in his chronicle and said buildings were the result of his actions. We may tell Islom khoja madrasa, mosque, minaret (there were rooms for library there) as one of the most famous architectural monuments. This construction was built with the initiative of progressive minister Islom Khoja in 1908–1910. Islom Khuja minaret is considered one of the most beautiful, the highest minarets. Madrasas and minarets were decorated with mosaics. They were built in a peculiar Khiva style. Its construction period, the composition of paints which were used in it, the style of construction attracted the attention of tourists, investigators. Khan drew the famous oasis masters such as master Khudaybergan khoja, master Nurmat, master of woodworking Bobojon, master Ismoil, master Otashaykh, master Mulla Vafo, master Zayniddin, Odina Mukhammad and his son master Ruzi Mukhammad, master Mulla Mukhammad, master Sufi Mukhammad, painter Abdulla jin, master of woodworking Nodir Mukhammad, master Ruzmat arbob, painter Abdulla Botaugli (Khorezm historian),master of woodworking Ota Polvon ugli into the construction of these buildings. Ogakhi wrote more than 10 ta’rikh devoted to the creation of these buildings, death of some people in the Uzbek, Tajik languages in the book. Most of the ta’rikhs in «Ta’vizul-Oshiqin» divan were devoted to the events in Feruz’s reign and also «Ta’rikhi binoi khavfiyi Amir ul-umaro Sayyid Mahmud Tura», «Ta’rikhi vafoti qozi Musa Eshon», «Ta’rikhi vafoti qozi Ibrokhim Eshon», «Ta’rikhi vafoti Sayyid Mukhammadkhon», «Ta’rikhi imorati masjidi Sayyid Akhmadtura», «Ta’rikhi binoyi madrasai Mukhammadniyaz devon», «Ta’rikhi binoyi madrasai amirul-umaro Sayyid Ahmad tura». We must emphasize that although these ta’rikhs by Ogakhi were devoted to the construction of madrasa and mosques, khan and his functionary, the death of aristocrats, these are important for us to know historical facts of the works of creation in Khiva. In the end of XIX century some daily buildings were built with Feruz’s initiative. First ambulatory point was opened. In 1889 the movement of starting telephone and post began, prime minister Sayyid Islom Khuja and other functionaries visited Moscow and Saint Petersburg to learn how to construct the buildings of post and hospital. As a result of their action post, telegraph and hospital buildings which were built in European style were started. Madrasas near the monuments of Ichankal’a and buildings in the European style which existed in Dishankal’a were built according to the order of khan and they make beautiful ancient Khiva.
That’s why in 1967, for the first time ancient Khiva city, preserve of historical-architectural monuments was declared officially «museum city» in Central Asia. Historical monuments of Uzbekistan and «Ichankal’a» complex of Khiva entered in «List of world heritage» which consists of 350 monuments and was organized by the UNESCO of the UNO.
- Эрназаров Ф. Хоразмдаги XIX аср маданий ҳаёти. — Ташкент, 2005.
- Давлатёр Раҳим, Шихназар Матрасул. Феруз шоҳ ва шоир қисмати. Тошкент, 1991.
- Баёний. Шажарайи Хоразмшоҳий. Мерос. — Ташкент: Камалак. 1991.
- Бобожон Тарроҳ. Хоразм навозандалари. — Ташкент: Адабиёт ва санъат, 1994;
- Жумахужа Н. Феруз маданият ва санъат ҳомийси. — Ташкент: Фан, 1995.
- Хоразмда битилган қўлёзмалар. — Ташкент, 1997.
- Маънавият юлдузлари. Марказий Осиёлик машҳур сиймолар, алломалар, адиблар. — Ташкент: А.Қодирий, 1999.