The masters and representatives of both the written speech and colloquial speech took into consideration the use of the proverbs from the literary point of view in order to improve the artistic degree of signs, works and to provide the fluency of the literary language. If we research in detail the works of Yusuf Hos Hojib, Ahmad Yassavi, Rabguzi, Lutfi, Alisher Navoi, Babur, Abulgazi Bakhadirkhan, Munis, Ogakhi, Nodira, Muqimi, Furkat, Avaz, Hamza, Sadriddin Ayniy, Fitrat, Chulpan, Abdulla Qodiriy, Oybek, Gafur Gulam and many other linguist scholars we can find out that there are a huge number of proverbs in their own forms and also changed, modification forms. Also we have to mention that there are works created on the basis of the proverbs. For instance, «Zarbulmasal» by Mukhammad Sharif Gulhaniy has more than 300 proverbs in its contents or Sulayman Rojiy used more than 400 proverbs in the poemic form in his work «Zarbulmasal».
It was begun to put in order the Uzbek national proverbs to make the special collections from them and they were added to the reader collections and contents from the second half of the 19th century. For instance, reader-dictionary «Textbook on the Chigatay language» («Chig`atoy tili darsligi») was published in 1867 in Leipzig by Hungarian scholar H. Vamberi. This dictionary includes some models and samples of Uzbek folklore and literature and also has 112 proverbs with their German interpretation.
Proverb collections in different features and volume made by outstanding folklore scholars, representatives of science N. Ostroumov (1895), B. Rahmonov (1924), Sh. Jo'rayev (1926), H.Zarifov (1939, 1947), B. Karimov (1939), Sh. Rizayev, O'.Azimov, O'. Xolmatov (1941), M. Afzalov, S. Ibrohimov, S.Xudoyberganov (1958, 1960, 1965, 1978), R. Jumaniyozov (1964, 1967, 1970), E.Siddiqov (1976, 1986), R. Zarifov (1978), B. Sarimsoqov, A. Musoqulov, M. Madrahimova (1981, 1984), Sh. Shomaqsudov, Sh. Shorahmedov (1987, 1990, 2001), T. Mirzayev, B. Sarimsoqov, A Musoqulov (1989) were published. M. Abdurahimov, X. Abdurahmonov, M. Sodiqova, H. Karomatov, K. Karomatova, H. Berdiyorov, R. Rasulov created several number of collections devoted to the linguistics and the approaches of translation. Also, the translators Y. Chernyavskiy, V. Ro'zimatov (1959), N. Gatsunayev (1983, 1988), A. Naumov (1985) worked hard at publishing of the collections of Uzbek national proverbs in the Russian language. Publishing of these collections in different periods and different years gave a great significance to collect national proverbs, to put them in right order, to propagate factice materials in these collections essentially were repeated. Even so, they are different according to the volume of materials, choice and theme division. [2; 3–4]
During many centuries nation proverbs were considered as valuable samples of folklore and were being taken into consideration by famous and outstanding writers as Alisher Navoi, Yusuf Xos Hojib, Muqimiy, Oybek according to their form and meaning. For example:
− In Alisher Navoi lyrics: «Men firoqdin desam, ul der Iroqdin», «Chiqmag‘on jong‘a umid», «It uyub qoldiyu, ko‘chdi karvon»;
− In Babur`s works: «Bo‘lib turur ikki ko‘zim yo‘lida to‘rt», «Men edim saningdek, sen bo‘lg‘oysen maningdek»;
− In Abdulla Qahhor`s works: «Otning o‘limi, itning bayrami», «Quruq qoshiq og‘iz yirtar»;
− In epic poem «Alpomish»: «Sulton suyagini xo‘rlamas», «Elakka borgan xotinning ellik og‘iz gapi bor». [1; 40]
It was too valuable to collect and classify nation proverbs and sayings, to publish such kind of collections in different years and periods. Factice materials in these collections were repeated, but they were not similar on their material volume, choice of the themes and theme division. For instance, in the last version of collection written by M. Afzalov 2500 proverbs are divided into 34 themes, and also author R. Jumaniyozov divided 1047 proverbs into 22 themes in his last edition. Author B. Rahmonov`s collection includes 564 proverbs and Sh. Jo'rayev`s consists of 711 proverbs. The greatest achievement of collecting and studying Uzbek nation proverbs was to prepare their scientific-academic edition. This collection had 2 volumes and was published in 1987–1988 years and includes itself about 13000 nation proverbs [2; 4].
Afterwards more complete form of collection than the previous ones was developed by To’ra Mirzayev, Asqar Musoqulov va Bahodir Sarimsoqov in 2005 on 70 themes in alphabetical order. It has to be emphasized that at the end of the 80-years by the associate workers of Language and Literature Institute named after Alisher Navoi of Uzbekistan Sciences Academy about 13000 proverbs were published in alphabetical order.
We have to mention about classification of the proverbs when their history and collecting process are being analyzed. There are following types of proverb classification by Uzbek folklorist scholars:
− In alphabetical order. According to this type of classification proverbs and sayings are put by alphabetical letters. The advantage of this is that reader could find proverbs quickly but it has also drawback like the reader can be faced with difficulty because theme division is not given in such kind of collections.
− In themes order. Next type of classification fully differs from the previous one with its complexity and completeness. Because in these collections material is divided into definite theme groups, in these groups the proverbs are written according to the alphabet. One more using superiority of these collections is that they show its nation proverbs reserve sphere which has both practical and theoretical value.
− According to literal or figurative meaning. Proverbs have changeable semantic nature which is being varied for years. For instance, one can mention that the proverb used with its literal meaning subsequently might mean only figurative meaning.On the basis of these features proverbs are divided into 3:
- pvs that have literal meaning;
- pvs that have both literal and figurative meanings;
- pvs that have only figurative meaning.
On the whole, this type of classification gives us a chance to clarify the semantic changes of nation proverbs,therefore it gets us to knowhow well they were developed or match the period requirements.
− According to chronology.Proverbs are very ancient at the same time, they are always considered as modern genre. Their antiquity is as far as history of the nation. Different social-economical features of definite nations are reflected in proverbs and sayings. With the help of this type we can clarify what period of time they belong to.
− According to the structure. Quantity of logical centers that proverbs include themselves leads to their division into the following groups. In other words:
- components and more than this.
At first, Uzbek proverbs were classified by above mentioned components. Nowadays there is one more type of classification:
− According to their synonymic or antonymic essence. In this type of classification proverbs cover synonym or antonym variants in alphabetical order.
In Uzbek paremiology references written on the basis of alphabetically ordered and themes classified methods include the following collections: «O’zbеk xalq maqollari» (1987, 2 volumes),«O’zbеk xalq maqollari» (1989, several volumes),«O’zbеk xalq maqollari» (2003) and etymology based collections «Hikmatnoma» (1990) by Sh.Shomaqsudov va Sh.Shorahmеdov, «Ma`nolar xazinasi» (2003) and «O’zbek xalq maqollari» (2005).
- Madayev O., Sobitova T. Xalq og’zaki poetik ijodi. — Tashkent: Sharq, 2010.
- Mirzayev T., Musoqulov A., Sarimsoqov B. O`zbek xalq maqollari. — Tashkent: Sharq, 2005.