Features of Functional Styles, including the Socio-political Lexicon
Жаббергенова К. Р. Features of Functional Styles, including the Socio-political Lexicon // Молодой ученый. 2016. №10. С. 1449-1451.
The present article is devoted to the study of one of the functional styles — socio-political one. It consists of several features. Socio-political lexicon used primarily in bookish style. Basically, in a journalistic, particularly newspaper and journalistic, but also in the scientific and official business the features of each of these functional styles are considered separately.
Social and political vocabulary was defined previously as a group of words, characteristic of the periodical press and journalistic functional style. Trofimova S. V. selects the next part of the socio-political text:
- Words and phrases belonging to the nucleus of APL.
- The common lexicon.
- The terms — words or phrases that accurately and unambiguously namely the concept and its relationship to other concepts within the special sphere. The terms are specialize restrictive designations specific to this area of objects, phenomena, their properties and relations. In contrast to the words of the general vocabulary which are often ambiguous and bear the emotional, the terms within the scope of unambiguous and devoid of expression.
- Occasional terms used.
- Precision vocabulary — numerals, place names and personal names.
- Different kinds of clichés and stamps that are typical for official-business, and for journalistic functional styles. On them will be discussed below [Bantysheva L. L., 2007].
Speaking about the political lexicon today, we can distribute it to the following groups in the spheres of human activity, from which are taken or that word in a political speech on the priority areas of use:
- The word itself political discourse: nomenclature names — individuals (officials), departments, agencies, etc. areas; terminology of electoral and related technologies (political marketing, etc.); names of political parties, movements, currents and their members (participants); political jargon; terms of the rights that are used in public and political discourse;
- Media: own terms; legal jargon; economic terms used in the socio-political discourse of the media; religious terms used in the socio-political discourse of the media; ethnographic terms used in the socio-political discourse of the media; technical terms for realities that have great social significance; philosophical, cultural, sociological, linguistic and psychological terms for realities that have great social significance [Bantysheva L. L., 2007].
Reading is a special type of literary works, in which the highlights are explained current issues of socio-political life, raised moral issues [Chernyak V. D., 2002].
Subject of journalism is life in society, economy, and ecology and all that concerns everyone. Journalistic style is used in the socio-political sphere. It is the language of newspapers, newsmagazines, radio and television propaganda, comments documentaries, language presentations at meetings, celebrations, etc. Journalistic style is a speech activity in the field of politics in all its manifold meanings. Fixed assets journalistic style designed not only for communication, information, logical proof, but also on the emotional impact on the listener (audience).
The characteristic features of journalistic works are relevant issues, political passion and imagery, sharpness and brightness of presentation. They are caused by the social purpose of journalism — reporting facts, shape public opinion, actively influence the minds and feelings of the person [Chernyak V. D., 2002].
One of the important features of journalistic style is a combination of the two within its language functions: function messages (informative) and exposure functions (expressive).
Posts feature is that the authors of journalism texts inform a wide range of readers, viewers, listeners about important issues for the society.
Information function is inherent in all styles of speech. Its specificity in journalistic style is the subject and nature of the information in its source and destination. For example, television programs, newspaper and magazine articles to inform the public about a variety of aspects of his life: a parliamentary debate on the government's economic programs and parties, about incidents and crimes, about the environment, about the daily lives of citizens.
A method of presenting information in a journalistic style and has its own distinctive features. The information in nonfiction texts describes not only the facts, but also reflects the assessment, opinions, sentiments authors includes their comments and reflections. This distinguishes it, for example, on official business information. Another difference in the provision of information related to the fact that the writer seeks to write selectively — first of all that is of interest to certain social groups, it highlights only those aspects of life that are important to its target audience.
Informing citizens about the situation in socially important areas in nonfiction texts accompanied by the implementation of the second most important feature of this style is the impact function. The purpose of the publicist is not only to tell about the situation in the society, but also to convince the audience of the need for a specific ratio to the statement of the facts and of the need for the desired behavior. Therefore, journalistic style bias inherent in an open, polemical, emotionality (tendency that caused journalist to prove the correctness of his position) [Chernyak V. D., 2002]
Scientific style is functional style of speech, literary language, which has a number of features: a preliminary consideration statements monological character, strict selection of language means attraction to the normalized speech [1, p. 123–130].
Scientific style has a number of features in common, manifested regardless of the nature of certain sciences (natural, accurate, humanities) and the differences between genres statements (monograph, article, report, tutorial, course work, etc.), which makes it possible to talk about the specifics of the style generally. However, it is quite natural that, for example, texts on physics, chemistry, mathematics are quite different in character from the presentation of texts in philology or history.
Scientific style is characterized by a logical sequence of presentation, orderly system of communication between the parts of speech, the author's desire for accuracy, conciseness, the uniqueness of the content, while maintaining saturation.
Consistency is the presence of semantic relationships between successive units (blocks) of the text. Sequence has just such a text in which conclusions are derived from the content they are consistent; the text is divided into individual segments of meaning, reflecting the movement of thought from the particular to the general, or from the general to the particular.
Clarity is the quality of scientific speech presupposes clarity, accessibility.
In terms of availability of scientific, educational and non-fiction texts vary in material.
As the leading form of scientific thinking is the notion, almost every lexical unit in scientific style represents a concept or abstract object. Precisely and unambiguously referred to the concept of special scientific field of communication and reveal their contents specific lexical units — terms. The term is a word or phrase denoting the notion of a special sphere of knowledge or activity, and being part of a certain system of terms. Within this system, the term tends to uniqueness, expresses expression. However, this does not mean its stylistic neutrality. The term, as well as many other lexical units, characterized by stylistic coloring of (scientific style), which is celebrated in the form of stylistic letter in the corresponding dictionaries. There much attention is paid to specific use of terms.
Official-business style is functional style of speech, the medium of speech communication in official relations: in the sphere of legal relations and management. This area covers international relations, law, economics, military industry, advertising, communication in official institutions, government activity [1, p. 156–166].
A characteristic feature of the official style is the presence in it of numerous speech standards — clichés. While in other styles templatized momentum often act as a stylistic disadvantage in official-business style in most cases they are perceived as quite natural that it belongs [Znamenskaya, 2006].
Despite the differences in content and variety of genres, official-business style in general characterized by a number of common features. These include:
- conciseness, compactness statement, economical use of language resources;
- the standard arrangement of the material, often bound form (identity card, various kinds of certificates, birth certificates and marriage certificates, financial documents, etc.), the use of clichés inherent in this style;
- The widespread use of terminology, nomenclature names (legal, diplomatic, military, administrative, etc.), the presence of special stock of vocabulary and phraseology (official, clerical), inclusion in the text abbreviated words, abbreviations;
- the frequent use of verbal nouns, prepositions Denominative, complex alliances, as well as a variety of set phrases that serve to connect parts of a complex sentence;
- The narrative character of the exposition, the use of nominative offers listing;
- the direct order of words in a sentence as the predominant principle of its design;
- the tendency to use complex sentences that reflect the logical subordination of some other facts;
- the almost complete lack of emotional and expressive speech means;
- weak individualization of style.
Among the book of language styles official business style stands out for its relative stability and closed. Over time, it, of course, is subject to some changes, caused by the nature of the content itself, but many of its features, historically genres, specific vocabulary, phraseology, syntax speed gives it a whole conservative [1, p. 205–209].
As a way of concluding, we would like to state that we have identified socio-political lexicon as part of the lexical system in which most clearly reflects the social structure of society, worldviews speakers, ways of organizing social life of the country in which it operates language. This subsystem represents a wide range of social processes, is closely related to social life and ideology of native speakers and includes a wide range of words of political discourse and the media language.
- Голуб И. Б. Русский язык и Культура речи. — М.: Просвещение, 2002.