Experiences of teaching grammar around the world
Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №9 (113) май-1 2016 г.
Дата публикации: 24.05.2016
Статья просмотрена: 21 раз
Мадаминова Д. А. Experiences of teaching grammar around the world // Молодой ученый. 2016. №9.5. С. 65-67.
Abstract:It is described about disconnect between knowing the rules of grammar and being able to apply those rules automatically in listening, speaking, reading and writing. This disconnect reflects a separation between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. Declaratives knowledge enables a student to describe a rule of grammar and apply it in pattern practice drills. Procedural knowledge enables a student to apply a rule of grammar in communication. Grammar teaching like teaching the four skills, should involve pre-, while- and post-stages in an attempt to provide integrated learning environments.
Аннотация: Эта статья описывает несоответствие знания правила грамматики и умения применять эти правила автоматически в аудировании, разговорной, чтении и письме. Этот разрыв отражает разделение декларативных знаний так и процедурных знаний. Повествовательные знания позволяют студенту описать правила грамматики и применять ее в шаблоне учений. Процедурные знания позволяют учащимся применять правила грамматики в общении. Обучение грамматике как учение четырех навыков, должна включать в себя пре-, При — и пост-этапы в попытке обеспечить интегрированные среды обучения.
Keywords: grammar, communication,declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, process, separation, definite time, to memorize, to disconnect, detriment of communication.
Ключевые слова: грамматика, средство общение,декларативное знание,процедурное знание, процедура, разделение, определенное время, запоминать, отсоединять, в ущерб средство общении.
Grammar is one the key elements of all languages. We use grammar whenever we speak, read or write English. Grammar is a part of the language, not something ‘extra’ that needs to be taught. In many ways learning to speak or write a language is like learning to drive a car. We can learn to drive only by practicing how to control and use the instruments, not by memorizing the rules of driving. Similarly, teaching students grammar rules without giving the students an opportunity to use these rules will not help them use English in real life. Language teachers and language learners in many non-native countries are often frustrated by the disconnect between knowing the rules of grammar and being able to apply those rules automatically in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This disconnect reflects a separation between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge.
- Declarative knowledge is knowledge about something. Declarative knowledge enables a student to describe a rule of grammar and apply it in pattern practice drills.
- Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something. Procedural knowledge enables a student to apply a rule of grammar in communication . For example, declarative knowledge is what you have when you read and understand the instructions for programming the DVD player. Procedural knowledge is what you demonstrate when you program the DVD player. Procedural knowledge does not translate automatically into declarative knowledge; many native speakers can use their language clearly and correctly without being able to state the rules of its grammar. Likewise, declarative knowledge does not translate automatically into procedural knowledge; students may be able to state a grammar rule, but consistently fail to apply the rule when speaking or listening. Most of our life of learning English we have been told to learn grammar rules at school, at University. Was it successful? Do we still have some obstacles which not allow us to speak and understand fast? Actually, we focus on grammar rules a lot. We learn Past Tense, Present Tense and other features of grammar during our learning process closely. According to the professors of Effortless learning English club declare when learning grammar rules we analyze language, think about language which not teach us to speak well. For writing learning grammar is acceptable in which we have enough time to think about tenses, but speaking leads us to respond quickly and understand carefully. Native English speakers learn grammar rules from hearing and listening from the real situations . In many English classrooms, teachers often set aside a particular time slot that is dedicated to the study of grammar. Such periods often focus on different points of grammar, such as tense, active and passive voice, or reported speech. Students are usually able to do the associated grammar exercises correctly, but when they are required to speak or write in English during other English lessons, they keep making grammatical mistakes. In addition, where grammar exercises are included as part of a textbook rather than in a dedicated book, some teacher’s feel they need to provide additional grammar-based input themselves. As a result, students get a lot of practice in memorizing grammatical rules without learning how to apply them in different situations. Here is an example to show the difference between memorizing and understanding a rule. It shows a typical exchange between a teacher and a student:
Sudip, why have you not done your homework?
I have done it yesterday, Madam, but I have forgot to bring my copy.
Don’t say ‘I have done it yesterday, but I have forgot’... Haven’t I taught you the rule of present perfect tense?
Sorry, Madam. You have taught it last week, but I have forgot it now.
As you will have noticed in the above example, students may memorize the rule, but this does not mean that they have understood how to use it. Without enough practice in using the rule in natural situations, students may forget that the present perfect is not used with words showing a definite time (‘yesterday’), or that the past participle form of the main verb is used (‘have forgotten’ or ‘have remembered’). At all proficiency levels, learners produce language that is not exactly the language used by native speakers. Some of the differences are grammatical, while others involve vocabulary selection and mistakes in the selection of language appropriate for different contexts. In responding to student communication, teachers need to be careful not to focus on error correction to the detriment of communication and confidence building. Teachers need to let students know when they are making errors so that they can work on improving. Teachers also need to build students' confidence in their ability to use the language by focusing on the content of their communication rather than the grammatical form. Teachers can use error correction to support language acquisition, and avoid using it in ways that undermine students' desire to communicate in the language, by taking cues from context. 
- When students are doing structured output activities that focus on development of new language skills, use error correction to guide them.
Student (in class): I buy a new car yesterday.
Teacher: You bought a new car yesterday. Remember, the past tense of buy is bought. When students are engaged in communicative activities, correct errors only if they interfere with comprehensibility. Respond using correct forms, but without stressing them.
Student (greeting teacher): I buy a new car yesterday!
Teacher: You bought a new car? That's exciting! What kind? Teach Grammar in Context is one of the most important things to do if you are looking for more interesting ways to teach grammar is to teach it in context. For example, let’s say we are introducing conditional sentences to our students. We could start our lesson by writing a big title on the board: “Conditional Sentences”, followed by an example: “If I don’t study for a test, I get a bad grade,” followed by a lengthy explanation: “This type of conditional sentence means that every time the first thing happens, the second thing happens, too. So, every time I don’t study for a test…” Are you falling asleep yet? On the other hand, we can start our lesson by tossing out some sentences for the students to finish: “If Jerry falls asleep in class, he…” “If I don’t study for a test, I…” “If I eat too much, I feel…” We might need to coax the answers out of them at first, but usually there will be one or two students who will catch on right away, even if they’ve never heard that particular sentence structure. The other students, after hearing a few answers, will get the gist pretty quickly, too. Let some zany answers come up, and have fun with it. Once they’ve seen the grammar in context, take a few moments to clarify and point out the structure and usage. We must be sure everyone understands, knows what it’s called, and can identify and give examples of this particular sentence structure.
When students see grammar in context first — through a game, a story, an activity, or just frequently hearing it used — it lets their brains work a little bit to intuit the meaning before you formally explain it. That’s how we naturally learn a language: by being exposed to it and picking up on the meaning. It’s more engaging, it develops an understanding that’s grounded in context, and it also develops their critical thinking and comprehension skills.
- Aj Hoge. Seven rules of effortless learning English, Rule 2.
- Mark Nettle and Diana Hopkins. “Grammar in Context”.Cambridge University Press.2003.
- Mora, J. K. “Major components of the study of grammar and syntax: Teaching grammar in context”. Retrieved 15th July 2007.
- Meena Singhal.The Internet and Foreign Language Education: Benefits and Challenges.The University of Arizona, USA.