Our history boasts of world-known thinkers whose scientific-ideological legacy, life routines and doctrines have been handy to solve today’s problems that we don’t have the right to neglect but study them, learn from them.
I. A. Karimov
The socio-philosophical development of the Middle Ages is associated with the name of the thinker Abu Nasr Farabi; his doctrine of perfecting human being has its versatile place in education and well-bringing. Abu Nasr Farabi, recognized as “Muallimi Soniy” [Second Teacher] of his time, left the richest heritage, which is worth learning, and investigating, especially his ideological, educational legacy plays crucial role in heightening the innate moral and mental qualities of the perfect generation. As an encyclopedic scientist of his time, Farabi took up all the subjects, left the greatest heritage. He became famous as a philosopher, musician, poet and encyclopedic scholar of his time. He wrote more than 160 publications such as, “Publication about mind” (Aql haqidagi risola), “What should be learn before Philosophy” (Falsafadan oldin nimani o’rganish kerak), “Sources of Philosophy” (Falsafa manbalari), “Sources of tasks”(Masalalar manbalari). His works “The city of fair people” (Fozil odamlar shahri), “About reaching Happiness” (Baxt-saodatga erishuv to’g’risida), “Ixso-al-ulum”, “The Evolution of knowledge”(Ilmlarni kelib chiqishi), “About the meanings of mind” (Aql ma’nolari to’g’risida) mainly touch upon the educational-upbringing tasks. In some sources Farabi is said to have acquired more than seventy languages.
While depicting the traits of an erudite, educated, perfect person, he said so, “He who wants to acquire knowledge should begin it while a child, should take care of his health, should be morally good, should keep his promises, should avoid bad things, doing bad things, should know all the rules and regulations, should be erudite and be an orator, should respect the educated and the wise, should be benevolent towards the knowledge and knowledge experts, should possess knowledge about the existing, surrounding things”. Judging form these we can learn that Farabi dealt with education and upbringing, perfecting the youth, especially did he pay a special attention to intellectual and moral education. The scientist likened the perfection of a tree with its fruit to human with all his traits edging up in moral-mental qualities.
Farabi divided the human qualities in innate and later cultivated ones. According to the scholar, innate qualities are a person’s brightness and his high aptitude towards to learning things yet the innate qualities are rare in secular life. Human cultivates main moral qualities during his life. Even people with innate abilities need some up-bringing, sharpening. If such people aren’t brought up correctly, their abilities are sure to fade away pretty soon. Innate ability is also a relative concept, once some reach good results using it, others might not be able to make well. According to the scholar both good and evil qualities are owned after the birth. Farabi considered the repetitious action to be a habit. Coming from this he considered a person might be accustomed to good traits and be made get accustomed to it as well. He considered every event should have an average limit. What he said about bravery is an example,
“Bravery is a good moral quality and appears as a mild manliness in dangerous situations. Too much of manliness brings up craziness, too little of it causes timidity and that is a bad enough quality.”
He applied this in terms of charity also. Playing puns and jokes with it’s a limit help it turn enjoyable. If he uses working and having a rest the same way, he’ll grow egoist. If he applies all the traits and qualities the same way, he will turn into a deceiver. Attitude between the two is a modest deal. More of it or less of it will ruin the friendship. Farabi divided good qualities in two: moral and mental qualities. Moral qualities are those that make the soul move, act; those qualities are called modesty, bravery, charity, justice. Mind qualities are the ones that go to the soul’s mental qualities such as, wisdom, common sense, eruditeness, broad-mindedness and etc. These qualities are strengthened as a habit by repeating and exercising.
Farabi considered music one of the divinely affecting the human upbringing. He considered music the means that leads the human towards gentleness, aesthetic pleasure, harmonically sharpening his feelings and moral qualities. Farabi stressed that musical imaginations come from the very deep heart of the spirit, as a melody impacts one’s on the feeling-power. Therefore while upbringing the child listening to music is a must with a big plus. In general, Farabi forwarded the ideas, suggestions for the youth of his time, by showing the necessity of acquiring knowledge, occupying professions, running some activity, and working. These ideas are still actual in use of today’s up-bringing methodology.
Farabi considered human beings obtain knowledge, cultivate mental and moral qualities, traits, information as a result of interpersonal attitudes. Therefore for shaping human beings the role of upbringing, especially mental and moral well-bringing is highly appreciated. He also said quality traits like manliness, bravery, charity, intuitiveness, honesty, justice are possessed by well-breeding. According to him moral qualities are created as follows
- By acting independently
- By acting forcedly.
In his book “About gaining happiness and prosperity” he stressed that good qualities are resulted by upbringing. He opined education is the art of settling good qualities in the being theoretically up-brought, engraving moral qualities based on education and well-bringing. The first one is carried by verbal means; the second is habituated through gaining skills. Farabi stressed the necessity of taking into consideration the individual approach, the youth’s nature, spiritual and physical qualities. He wrote this:
“… all the natural qualities need sharpening, the means serving as the means leading them to perfectness and harmonic teenage… humans differ from each other by diverse educational, professional backgrounds, by aptitude to acting and their ability, equal-quality owners differ from the others through their skills.
The ones, equaling one another by being well-brought, differ in the effects of well-bringing.”1
“If a person did not have a proper educational training and did not gain some experience, he will overlook and abhor many a thing.”2
Thus, he summarized the pedagogical approaches, thoughts of Middle Ages’ in his pedagogical approaches and, as the founder of pedagogical approaches among the Middle Asian nations and Uzbekistani peoples, he presented the theory of modesty in the field of educating, up-bringing. That is why his thoughts, ideas in the field of educating, up-bringing has impacted not only the Orient but that of European scientists’ pedagogy as well. So, Farabi’s approaches in human education, upbringing is of the essence. The thoughts of human being’s perfection make the basis of Farabi’s doctrine in educating, up-bringing.
All that we mentioned above is strongly recommended for the future parents, pedagogues to be used in educating, up-bringing the young generation of present time.
- Ал-Фараби. Социально-этические трактаты. Алма-Ата, 1976, page № 198 2 AbuNasrFarobiy. “Fozil odamlar shahri”. T.: “Xalq merosi”. 1993. page № 182