The history of Uzbekistan air transport
Шарофиддинов М. М. The history of Uzbekistan air transport // Молодой ученый. 2016. №9. С. 959-961.
With the appearance of humanity on the land, it tries to investigate the surroundings and open the world from various sides. As a result lots of achievements were gained. As examples we can give air planes and helicopters as main parts of airways. Airway transport was invented near the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century. Russian inventor A. F. Mojayskiy, English airplane builder G. Fillips, French inventor K. Ader put a big contribution to creating first airplanes. In 1903 brothers Uilher and Orvill Rights flew on the plane for the first time. This was the first airplane in the history of humanity. In a short period of time planes spread all over the world. In the beginning planes were used for military demands. It was the Soviet army which first brought planes to the territory of Uzbekistan. For instance, in 1920 the commander of Turkestan front Frunze had 12 planes when he invaded to Bukhara emirates. The history of the new branch of airway transport, it means citizens aviation also began in 1920. In 1923 on March the front of Russian voluntary society «Dobrolyot» was established and in the same year, the Department of Central Asian Society was founded. Air base, which was situated near the town Kagan, was given to «Dobrolyot». In 1923 from the month June they started preparing for the opening airways between Tashkent — Almata, Bukhara — Khiva, Bukhara — Termez — Dushanbe. Plane «Junker 13» with six seats for passengers was brought. The first rays was done on May 12, 1924 that ran between Tashkent — Avliyoota — Pishpak –Almata. Its length was 800 km. In that year two airways were opened that ran between Kogon — Oqtogay — Dargontepa — Khiva and Bukhara — Termez — Dushanbe with the length of 450 km. In 1924 on air transports were carried 1000 passengers, 200 kg letters and 5 ton goods. As time passed to the society «Dobrolyot» were given several pilots and planes «Junker 21» from» Turkestan military district. In the beginning of 30s it became common to carry passengers and goods on planes. From 1930 planes started frequent between Tashkent-Moscow. Aviation is also used for agriculture and sanitary purposes. Those years airports, landing stations were built. In 1932 in Tashkent, in 1939 in Nukus and Urgench, in 1940 in Termez, in Namangan new airports were built and started their work.
In 1937 Workshop, which was opened in Tashkent in 1924 for repairing planes, was converted into factory, which repairs aviation transports. Aviation industry of Uzbekistan also increased. This process is directly related with World War II. After the beginning of the war western industrial factories of former union were transferred to eastern outskirts, including territories of Uzbekistan. For example, on the base of the plant which was brought from Ximki in 1941 there was built a new aviation industry in Uzbekistan. In the beginning it produced planes named PS-84 and IL-2. During the war this plant provided fronts with 2090 planes and 17342 aviation motors. After World War periods Tashkent aviation factories expanded their function. We can give such examples, lots of planes that we produced like IL-14 in 1953, AN 10 in 1956, AN 12 «Antey» in 1958, various planes for passengers and in 1966 An-22. In the years after war citizen aviation was also used. For instance, IL-2, IL-12, IL-14 and AN-2 with different modifications started to fly. During 1957–1958 years were observed various types of planes like TU-104, IL-18, AN-24, Yak-40 and helicopters like Mi-1, Mi-2, Mi-4, Ka-26. An-24 and Yak-40 started to fly on local airways. Planes were widely used not any for carrying passengers and goods, but also for fertilizing, sprinkling toxic preparats and defoliating cotton plants. Apart from those, new airports were built in Kokand (1947), in Samarkand (1948), Kharshi (1955), in Bukhara (1965), and in Sergeli near Tashkent (1965).
In 1972 Tashkent Aviation Union named Chkalov was established. Afterwards, in 1973 they began to produce plane IL-76.Tashkent aviation factory (head factory), Andijan mechanics factory, Fergana mechanics factory and Tashkent oxygen factory were joint to the Union’s function. The Union gathers planes, makes its various details and knots, also, produces things for people’s usage. The airways lasted to 60000 km. In 1985 in airports of the Republic were dispatched nearly 55 million passengers and 63,4 thousand tons goods. From December of 1982 airbuses started to fly on republic airways. Coming to the 1980 years the length of Uzbekistan airways for air transport made up more than 155 Thousand km. We should add that local airways made up 60,1 km.
After gaining Independence, the republic of Uzbekistan paid a great deal of attention to the development of transports. Maintaining this issue on 28 February, 1992 National Air company «O’zbekiston havo yo’llari» (Uzbekistan Airways) was established. Establishing of this company gave to our country a chance to connect airlines with big cities of the world, fill the air station with modern aircrafts «A-310», «Boing -757», «Boing-767», «RJ-85», «Airbus 320». The waiting hall of Tashkent airport, airport in Namangan, Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench, Nukus were rebuilt in world standards. A new building in Nukus airport with the price of 157,8 million was given for usage. In 2002 in official delegation hall and second Nukus aviacash agency’s building were repaired and furnished with equipment that answer world standards. In 2002 Nukus railway station was rebuilt, after which became capable of carrying 200 passengers. During its vibrant function National aviacompany «O’zbekiston havo yo’llari» made relation with 20 developed countries. It has 40 consular offices in different countries. Company serves for near than 20 million passengers. National company «O’zbekiston havo yo’llari» became famous for its safety of the flight. Near the airport «Navoi» was established a free industrial economic zone named «Navoi». In this zone 19 projects based on modern technologies are being used in practice, attracting foreign countries investment. In 2010 in 7 factories the process of producing started. Factories, which are connected to state joint-stock that produce aviation are also in develop with the join-stock.
Tashkent aviation factories Chkalov, which is the head company of joint-stock, produces planes like IL-114, IL-114T, IL-76 MF, IL-76 TF for carrying goods and passengers. Among all of them IL-114, which has been produced since 1992, was recognized as the most convenient. Also, 900 planes named IL-76 were produced. From the statistics of 2010 year is known that the company has 69 plane in its composition. In 2014 National Aviacompany «O’zbekiston havo yo’llari» enjoying equal rights member of International Air transport Association (IATA) that consist of more than 270 aviacompanies.
In conclusion, in Uzbekistan air transport and citizen aviation appeared in the 20 ties of the last century. If we pay attention to this spheres, we can see two peculiarity. They are the followings: firstly, in Uzbekistan aviation industry appeared, which was the reason for the development of aviation industry in our country. Secondly, it’s obvious that citizen aviation stopped its function since all planes were being used on military purposes during the war. After war the air transport developed and enhanced its function. New types of planes were produced and were set up running to new territories. As this period new types of air transport-helicopters came into Uzbekistan. After becoming independent, our homeland paid much attention to air transport and citizen aviation. Nowadays the quality of air transports and citizen aviation are on leading position. New planes were bought. Old planes gave up their function. Consequently, Uzbek air transport was internationally recognized and became one of the leading transport systems in the world.
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